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Archaeological Dating

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by

Dale Simpson Jr.

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Archaeological Dating

Timing the Past :
Archaeological Dating Archaelogical
Dating Relative Relative
Dating Typology
Seriation
Palynology
Faunal Correlation
Dendrochronology Absolute
Dating 14C
K/Ar
Obsidian hydration
U-series dating
ESR
Historic Artifacts Absolute Can determine the sequential order in which a series of events occurred,not when they occur. Useful technique especially in material slacking radioactive isotopes. • i.e., stratigraphy, faunal association, typology,seriation, palynology, dendrochronology Based on the physical or chemical properties of the materials More precise when a particular cultural event happened, but when taken as part of the overall archaeological record. • Invaluable in constructing a more specific
sequence of events. Typology Chronological arrangement of artifacts, such as ceramics or lithics,into different types based on associating similar characteristics (types). Style Distinctive shape and decoration are dialogistic to the culture that produced them Evolution Change in style (shape and decoration) is often gradual or evolutionary Style & Evolution
with Temporality 500y Hohokam
ceramic
bowl sequence Linking Relative vs.Absolute Dating 14C (AMS), K/Ar, U-Series,
Obsidian Hydration, ESR,
Historic Artifacts Seriation Assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites from the same culture, are placed in chronological order Regional variation must be kept to a minimum, i.e. assemblages must best be drawn from one locality. The objects analyzed must all come from a single cultural tradition. The traits or attributes included in the seriation must depend on cultural aspects (rather than on function). Creation of
style Adoption through
diffusion Peak "popularity" "Going out
of style" Style
death based on the presence or absence of a design style Contextual
seriation Measuring the proportional abundance or frequency of a design style. Frequency
seriation Palynology Studies microfossils pollen, seeds, spores, charcoal Uses core samples andScanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Creates vegetation histories Uses strata and microfossils determine the relative age of a given bed, horizon, formation or stratigraphical sequence. Vegetation histories Decrease in
tree pollen Increase in
ferns Correlate
with 14C - 1650ya Faunal
Correlation Correlates and assigning relative ages of strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them. Dendro-
chronology Analysis of patterns of tree rings, also known as growth rings. Date the time at which tree rings were formed, in many types of wood, to the exact calendar year
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