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Internalised Shame Scale (ISS)
Transcript of Internalised Shame Scale (ISS)
What is Shame?
A self-conscious emotion, social and moral
Often develops alongside guilt
Invokes feelings of inferiority, worthlessness, inadequacy and alienation
Chronic shame causes physical, social and emotional dysfunction
The Internalized Shame Scale (ISS)
Initial testing in 3 populations
603 college undergraduates average age 21, 98% white, 55% male, 45% female.
198 Adults, average age 37.7, predominantly white, 38% male, 62% female.
64 Clinical subjects, average age 27, 50% male, 50% female
Identifies Shame in a range of emotional difficulties, as a dimensional construct, rather than identifying it as a category in a specific diagnosis for treatment.
The ISS - Structure
Self-report, 30 item measure
Twenty four negatively worded items to measure intense affect and self-cognition - shame score
Six positively worded self-esteem items (taken from Rosenberg self-esteem scale)
Uses 5 point Likert scoring - 'Never to Almost Always'
Primarily used with age 13 and older
Fourth grade reading level
Approx fifteen minutes administration time
The ISS - Use and Norms
The ISS can be administered by untrained individuals, however scoring and interpretation must be done by an individual with at least undergraduate training in assessment. (Level B)
The ISS is hand scored, with a raw score of 50 considered to indicate problematic levels, 60 may indicate depression, 70+ very likely depression and/or other emotional or behavioral problems.
Data was collected from non-clinical male and females (n = 1130). From in-patient alcoholic populations (n = 319). From combined psychiatric sample, 50% outpatient / inpatient suffering from depression, dysthymia or an anxiety disorder (n = 499). From a high school sample (n = 200). Clinical adolescents in residential care (n = 41).
Percentile ranks are provided
State V Trait
is the transitory experience of shame in a specific situation or scenario.
involves a more pervasive, enduring and intense shame resulting in a fundamental and stable feeling of incompetence and inferiority.
is a pervasive internal self-belief that one is worthless, inferior, inadequate and isolated.
It has been linked with abandonment and rejection, addiction, attachment, eating disorders, narcississtic personality, sexual abuse and trauma and many other psychopathologies
The Internalized Shame Scale History
David R. Cook created the scale in 1988
Used with alcoholics to empirically assess the level of shame in the individual to establish the impact, if any, on their recovery.
Believed that addicts had higher levels of shame
First version was 39 items,including childhood experiences, later dropped.
Third version includes 6 self-esteem items to prevent response patterns.
Construct Validity is not robust due to limited samples- mean age of non clinical sample used was 24, mainly white males.
Convergent and Discriminant Validity - ISS has modest, positive correlations between other measures of shame and guilt.
Test-Retest correlations ranged from adequate (self-esteem: .69) to good (Shame: .84) for a 7 week time frame.
Internal Consistency excellent-alpha coefficients .95 for non clinical (N=645) and .96 for Clinical (N=370) (Cook, 1994,2001 Technical Manual) In a mixed sample, Rybak and Brown found internal consistency as .97 (N=159)
Convergent validity with Janis-field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale (. 77), Suicide Probability Scale (.81), Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (.74), The Multiscore Depression Inventory (.79).
Reliability & Validity
The ISS - Summary
The primary psychometric instrument in empirical studies of shame
Single factor approach.
Easily administered, can be repeated to assess treatment progress
Norms available - needs wider, more varied cultural research
Raw score facilitates psycho-educational approaches in therapy
Reliability and Validity in satisfactory range, wider age and culture testing ongoing
Compliments categorical clinical data
Culturally suited for English speaking populations only.
Cook, D. (1988). MHS - Internalized Shame Scale. Retrieved July 10, 2015, from http://www.mhs.com/product.aspx?gr=cli&prod=iss&id=overview
Cook, D. (1988). Measuring Shame:. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 197-215.
Plake, B. (2005). The Internalized Shame Scale By: Cook, David R. In The sixteenth mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, Neb.: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Tracy, J. (2007) "Assessing Self-conscious Emotions, a Review of Self-report and Non-verbal Measures." The Self-conscious Emotions: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford, 443-468.
Tangney, J. (1996) "Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Shame and Guilt." Behaviour Research and Therapy.