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Copy of Sustainable Urban Development

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Jessica Sammut

on 14 December 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Sustainable Urban Development


Sharon Falzon
Jessica Sammut

T1: Eco-industrial parks - discuss the background, characteristics, key players, achievements and challenges of the case.
"... looks at the flows of natural resources from extraction through manufacturing, product use, reuse and return to the environment and examines the combined effect of all these steps on the environment." (Veiga & Magrini, 2009)
Industrial Ecology (IE)
Industrial Symbiosis
Cleaner Production
"...moves industry from pollution prevention and control into new paradigm that is to become the industry standard" (Pauli, 1997)
"... a community of manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property. Member businesses seek enhanced environmental, economic, and social performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues. By working together, the community of businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of individual benefits each company would realize by only optimizing its individual performance." (Lowe, 2010)
What is an EIP?
"... physical exchanges of materials, energy, water and by-products among diversified clusters of firms"
... designates relationships in nature in which at least two otherwise unrelated species exchange materials, energy or information in a mutually beneficial manner therefore taking advantage of synergies"
ultimate goal = zero waste
Baltimore City: State of Maryland
Population: 621,342 (July, 2012)
+0.1% growth since 1950
Government: Democratic Stronghold
Area: 238.4Km
Economy: Shift from industrial to service-based
Designated as one of the four demonstration sites in USA by the President’s Council of Sustainable Development
Fairfield EIP opened its doors with a regional-scale approach leaving behind most of the EIP concept. Firms reused oil for heating, while manufacturing businesses eliminated chlorine from the production process. Businesses were engaged in a State sponsored carpooling program, open space conservation, and green building design.
Fairfield Urban Renewal Plan

Discontinuation of Fairfield peninsula production
Concept for a new EIP with a RENEWABLE POWER PLANT to be developed by Energy Answers International with onset community involvement through:
- Community Interaction Program Advisory Group
-Community Advisory Task Force through the Cooperative Memorandum of Understanding

Industrial activity
FMC corporation (agriculture & industrial production chemical plant, private firm) purchased site & started operating

RETROFIT of existing industrial area to fit into the carbon-based economy.

TYPES of enterprises included:
1. similar manufacturing activities to existing
2. environmental technologies
3. recyclers and waste exchanges

60 companies in total; of which 7 new firms joined the EIP concept.

FUNDING: regional & central government

PRIVATE developer

NEVER happened:
• RISKS: financial implications, business continuity & co-dependence for product exchanges
• DISTRUST: in local government
• POLITICAL: project as a job creation initiative, & not as an economic & environmental performance
• Absence of local CHAMPION & ANCHOR TENANT

"... maintain and enhance the peninsula as an industrial and port-related employment area and to protect it from the influences of non-industrial and incompatible uses." (Fairfield Urban Renewal Plan 2004)

Baltimore's industrial activity froze due to reduction in employment among major manufacturers and relocation to suburban sites.
Influences from non-industrial uses: Land value
(Mahoney, 2009)
Ecological Industrial Park
Plant + Satellite Industries = ‘Closed-Loop’ & Zero Disposal
Community Views
Brooklyn Heights Improvement Association:
• 4,000 tons of debris daily = TOXINS
• 250 trucks per day = TAX + POLLUTION

• Ash from BURNING certain materials

Labour Unions:
• Vocal Supporters: JOB creation

Community Groups:
• FUNDS for local improvement projects
• Scholarships & Internships

• Increased energy EFFICIENCY
• CLEANER energy production
• Energy for the REGIONAL GRID
• Recovering of BROWNFIELD
site (Urban revitalization)
• LESS WASTE of resources

• Reduction of GHGs
• Reduction of LANDFILL
• Re-use of WASTEWATER
• BY-PRODUCTS from power

• JOB creation for the locals
• Scholarships & TRAINING
• Improvement of neglected NEIGHBOURHOODS
• Improved HEALTH

Requires OFF-SITE linear processes
DISCOURAGE recycling
TRAFFIC generated by refuse trucks
Pollution due to TYRE BURNING

(if Fairfield was realised)
• Relies on RELOCATION of
• Risk of UNCLEAR economic
situation (limits investment)
• Relying on COMPETITIVE
companies for inputs
• POLITICAL agenda (job
creation vs economic
sustainable growth)

Lack of private stakeholder initiative
Risk factors of investment
Lack of ownership
Forced relationships

Previous Industrial site
Industries were PRICED OUT due to rising cost of land by ENCROACHMENT of non-industrial uses.
They settled in cheaper SUBURBAN locations. Simultaneously, there was a SHIFT in economy from manufacturing-based to SERVICE-based, which led to a REDUCED number of operating industries.
Although there are POLICY INCENTIVES for the industries to move, the low cost of secondary MATERIAL ATTAINMENT & waste disposal still makes relocation to the EIP UNVIABLE. Therefore lack of INTEREST from the private stakeholders to take INITIATION.
1. Economically Unviable
2. Lack of Trust
Demonstration EIP scenario:
Renewable energy plant proposal:
EIPs tend to function more successfully if they develop ORGANICALLY, since companies would have established themselves economically, hence neighbouring industries are more likely to TRUST & develop synergies with them due to their STABILITY.

EIPs in an ideal world are a WIN-WIN-WIN situation. However, industries are not given enough INCENTIVES to move towards the green synergy option or rather not given enough disincentives to move away from their polluting BEHAVIOUR.

Requires a good overall MANAGEMENT system to overlook human resources, economic feasibility of each stage and environmental performance.

RISKS including: technological innovations and economic forecasts.

REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS in terms of time, exchanges and gradually reaching the ultimate target in a financially viable way.

CULTURAL CONTEXT might have a bearing on the success or otherwise of an EIP.

Using the ANALOGY of the natural ecosystem is a good way forward for industries to achieve environmental sustainability.

DEFINITIONS - what is an EIP?
CASE STUDY - Fairfield, Baltimore, MD, USA:
Community Views

(Dixon Environmental,2009)
1.fuel receiving & storage area,
2.energy recovery plant,
3.ash processing and storage plant.
1.PRF is suspension fired into the boilers.
2. Over 50% of the material CONBUSTS in midair while the rest lands on a grate
3. Horizontal metal conveyor (grate) moves SLOWLY through the furnace allowing TIME for any combustible material to burn.
4. Steam is produced & introduced to one of two turbine generators to PRODUCE ELECTRICITY
5. Electricity shall be SOLD or USED at the facility
6. Combustion gases from the boilers will be MONITORED & CONROLLED

7. The remaining “BOTTOM ASH” will be separated into 3 components:
a. Ferrous metals
b. Non-ferrous metals
c. Boiler Aggregate – a granular material which is usable as a SUBSTITUTE for natural granular materials needed to manufacture asphalt or concrete, or as a fill material appropriate as a daily LANDFILL COVER.
8. A separate and independent processing system will ‘CONDITION’ the fly ash which can be used as an effective, naturally hardening landfill cover material.

(Dixon Environmental, 2009)
(Maryland Gazette, 2012)
(Veiga & Magrini, 2009)
(Chertow, 2007)
Bay Area Economics. (2004). Industrial Land Use Analysis.
Energy Answers International. (2012). Retrieved November 30, 2013, from Maryland Clean Energy Center:http://mdcleanenergy.org/find/spotlight_profiles/energy_answers_international
Chertow, M. (2007). “Uncovering” Industrial Symbiosis. Journal of Industrial Ecology,11-30.
Coˆte, R., & Cohen-Rosenthal, E. (1998). Designing eco-industrial parks: a synthesis of some experiences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 181–188.
Department of Housing and Community Development. (2004). Urban Renewal Plan -Fairfield. Baltimore: City Of Baltimore Development Corporation.
Dixon Environmental . (2012). Fairfield Renewable Energy Power Plant and Resource Recovery Project. Retrieved November 29, 2013, from Energy Answers International: http://www.energyanswers.com/development/current_projects/fairfield_renewable_energy_project/index.php
Gibbs, D. (2008). Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Development: An Introduction. Geography Compass, 1138–1154.
Gibbs, D., & Deutz, P. (2005). Implementing industrial ecology? Planning for eco-industrial parks in the USA. Geoforum, 452–464.
Heeres, R. R., Vermeulen, W. J., & de Walle, F. (2004). Eco-industrial park initiatives in the USA and the Netherlands: first lessons. Journal of Cleaner Production, 985–995.
Hranicka, M. G. (2012). Trash to energy. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from Maryland gazette: http://www.capitalgazette.com/maryland_gazette/opinion/letters/trash-to-energy/article_630fc493-deae-51ff-a374-fa56f2dc9791.html
Longo, A., & Alberini, A. (2007). What are the Effects of Contamination Risks on Commercial and Industrial Properties? Evidence from Baltimore, Maryland. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 713 – 737.
Lowe, E. (2001). Handbook for development of eco-industrial parks. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from Indigo Development, USA: http://indigodev.com
Magrini, A., & Veiga, L. (2009). Eco-Industrial park development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a tool for sustainable development. Journal of Cleaner Production, 653- 661.
Mahoney, P. F. (2009). Fairfield Alternative and Renewable Energy Project. Energy Answers International Inc. .
McGalliard, T., Bell, M., & Cohen-Rosenthal, E. (2001). Designing Eco-Industrial Parks. Cornell University Centre for Environment.
Pauli, G. (1997). Zero Emissions: the ultimate goal of cleaner production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 109- 113.
Sage Policy Group, Inc. (2011). Why the Fairfield Renewable Energy Project Makes Sense for Baltimore and Maryland.
Sakr, D., Baas, L., El-Haggar, S., & Huisingh, D. (2011). Critical success and limiting factors for eco-industrial parks: global trends and Egyptian context. Journal of Cleaner Production, 1158-1169.
Wasserman , S. E. (2001). Sustainable Economic Development. Massachusettes: MIT.
Wheeler, T. (2012). Delay sought for trash-burning power plant in Fairfield. Retrieved November 29, 2013, from The Baltimore Sun: http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2012-01-08/features/bs-gr-energy-answers-20120106_1_power-plant-air-pollution-curtis-bay-area
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