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Storrs seminar

The fact that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations gradually erode average oceanic pH, carbonate saturation states, and buffering capacity has greatly heightened concerns about impacts on marine organisms and ecosystems. A whole new sub-field of oce

Hannes Baumann

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Storrs seminar

Ocean acidification research 2.0:
Moving beyond the "Average Open Ocean"

Seasonal CO2

State of the Art
Kiel (1995 - 2001)
St.Johns (2001-2002)
Hamburg (2002-2008)
UConn Avery Point (2014)


Planetary boundaries & the emergence of a new research field: Ocean acidification
"Ocean acidification" *
pH (1909, Soerensen)
1929, Redfield & Goodkind: CO2 impacts O2 uptake in squid
1933: first ocean pH survey
oceanic CO2 uptake seen as beneficial to reduce climate change
~2000s: OA a worry -> sharp rise in studies
*Google Scholar (excl. citations/patents
Peak OA science?
A [subjective] timeline of recent OA science
Modeling future CO2 oceans
Cocco's! Forams! Corals! Molluscs!
OA 2.0
Lingering questions
Why are responses to CO2 so different?
Can we scale responses from individuals up to ecosystems?
What about evolutionary adaptation?
Why are responses to CO2 so different?
2. Most organisms don't live in an 'average open ocean'
CO2 sensitivities are just highly species-specific. Hmm...
Unaccounted processes may confound experimental outcomes
1. Unaccounted variables
3. Transgenerational effects
Unaccounted variables
CO2 x light
Increasing CO2 sensitivity with decreasing light levels
"... OA studies must better account for the potential moderating role of light upon growth/diversity if we are to move beyond the current ..."
Suggett et al. Coral Reefs 2013
CO2 x food
Ad libitum food may disguise CO2 effects on growth in survivors
"This could also explain the mostly neutral or positive growth effects of increasing CO2 levels reported by other studies on fish early life stages ..."
Murray et al. MEPS 2014
Most organisms don't live in an 'average open ocean'
The majority of ecologically and economically important marine organisms spend all or part of their life in coastal environments
(Hendriks et al. 2010)
Transgenerational effects
“… most OA experiments to date have only considered the impacts on ‘adults’ or ‘larvae’, ignoring the potential link between the two life-history stages and possible carry-over effects that may be passed from adult to offspring”
(Parker et al. 2012)
Laboratory evidence that parental CO2 exposure influences offspring sensitivity (clownfish, oyster)
Could it be important in the wild?
Offspring sensitivity to ocean acidification changes seasonally in a coastal marine fish
Murray, Malvezzi, Gobler, Baumann MEPS Feature May 2014
Offsping from a wild population
Experiments covered the entire spawning season
control - 1,000 - 2,000 ppm CO2
24C, ad libitum food
Atlantic Silverside (M. menidia)
Important forage fish
Parallel monitoring of pH in the spawning habitat
Field sampling + laboratory experiments + monitoring
TGP to high CO2 is not just a laboratory phenomenon, it may be a common adaptive strategy in coastal environments
What does this mean for a species OA sensitivity?
If parental environments matter, what about using organisms from broodstocks?
More OA headaches...
Detecting the Unexpected:
A Research Framework for Ocean Acidification
Catherine A. Pfister,
Andrew Esbaugh, Christina Frieder, Hannes Baumann, Emily Bockmon, Meredith White, Brendan Carter, Heather Benway, Carol Blanchette, Emily Carrington, James McClintock, Daniel McCorkle, Wade McGillis, T. Aran Mooney, Patrizia Ziveri
Second U.S. Ocean Acidification Principal Investigators' Meeting
Gallaudet University's Kellogg Conference Center, Washington, DC
September 17-20 2013
"The first key observation from other ecological studies is that assays and experiments with single species do not necessarily predict the features of multi-species systems."
Nitrogen fixation
Fish species near power plant
Schiel et al. 2004
Tilman et al. 1996
"A second key observation is that structural and functional properties of a system may not respond similarly."
Primary producers in lakes:
Schindler et al. 1985
Species composition changed, but not their productivity
Acid rain
"We need to ask how ecosystem function changes with OA, including any direct or indirect effects on the fitness of key species."
A third observation is that research efforts* and thus understanding of the key OA linkages are unevenly distributed.
well understood
Strong current research programs / gains in understanding
poorly understood/funded
poorly understood/funded
*based on OAPI poster, NSF OA grant classification
What about evolutionary adaptation?
Demonstration of genetic variability
Experimental evolution
Evolutionary potential from heredity estimates
Estimating the potential for genetic adaptation to high CO2 oceans in a coastal marine fish (in prep)
Malvezzi A, Murray CM, Gobler CJ, Chapman D, Feldheim, K, DiBattista, J, and Baumann, H
Rockstroem et al.
2009 "A safe operating space for humanity"

e.g., Parker et al. 2011, Hutchins et al. 2013
e.g., Lohbeck et al. Nature Geoscience 2012 (E.huxlei, 500 generations)
Pespeni et al. PNAS 2013 - sea urchin
e.g., Sunday et al. 2013
Malvezzi et al. in prep
Ocean acidification will change phenotypes -> fitness of most marine organisms
Ocean acidification research -> typical dynamic of a fast evolving field near its peak
Species vulnerability to OA -> core motivation
but experiments challenged by co-factors, transgenerational effects, unknown evolutionary adaptation (trade-offs?)
Ecosystem function ??
Baumann, H. and Gobler, C.J. Will rising CO2 levels is the ocean affect growth and survival of marine fish early life stages? NSF Project# 1097840 ($650,000 3 years)
Chris Gobler (co-PI), Chris Murray, Alex Malvezzi, Elizabeth Depasquale (MS students), Ryan Wallace, Chris Schubert, Tristen Tagliaferri (USGS)
Hutchins et al. Nature Geoscience 2013
Parker et al. Marine Biology 2011
Population-specific CO2 sensitivities -> genetic variability for selection to work on
Sunday et al. PLOS One 2011 - Oyster & sea urchin larvae
Individual crosses
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Full transcript