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This Prezi was created for educational purposes. It presents open government concept and uses some Youtube's source videos in order to give some examples. There have some discussion questions for the feasibility of OG strategies into Arab World

César Nicandro Cruz-Rubio

on 26 January 2017

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With some questions for discussion
OGP Open Government Partnership
E-Government and
E -governance
Definitions and Principles
e-government and e-governance
OGP - The Open Government Partnership
of Open

OG (≠) egov
e-governance (>) e-gov
Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight. In its broadest construction it opposes reason of state and other considerations, which have tended to legitimize extensive state secrecy. The origins of open government arguments can be dated to the time of the
European Enlightenment
The contemporary doctrine of open government finds its strongest advocates in those non-governmental organizations keen to counter what they see as the inherent tendency of government to lapse, whenever possible, into secrecy.
Advocates of open government often argue that civil society, rather than government legislation, offers the best route to more transparent administration
Open Government Partnership or OGP is an international organization promoting multilateral initiative and seeking strong commitments from participating government institutions to promote transparency, increase civic participation, fight corruption, and harness new technologies to make government more open, effective, and accountable. The OGP Launching event was on September 20, 2011
Open government
may be understand as a "
work in progress"
governing and administrative doctrine (or approach) who promotes better governance, based on three -and maybe four - normative principles, who (mostly, but not necessarily) implies the use of ICT advances oriented to change the way interaction occurs between government and its citizens.
The Open-Government movement has come. Around the world, its proponents and advocates are claiming to work and think on it, on its rationales and instruments, in order to define its boundaries, to shape and configure it in a new approach (or a new relational model) between the rulers, government (and its public sector) and citizens (Ramírez-Alujas, 2011a, 2011b)
A "work in progress" doctrine
Open Government has come...
It is clear that OG concept
may not
understand simply as the using of open data for governance, and
must not
be use as a new way to define or understand innovations in transparency and accountability policies
Cesar Calderón (2013) remind us that "In order to avoid any misconception, it is necessary to make a clear distinction between '
(also known as 'e-administration' or) with the '
Open Government
' concept.
First: open government is not the same as e-government
When we talking about
we refer to the use of ICT and its tools to the public sector procedures for public service delivery. E-government is the application of technology to improve communication capabilities and to make more efficient governments.
e-government (egov)
, we are not talking about changes in values.
don't reconsider
the aims, objectives and rationales underlying public administration and make things work.
For e-government,
(as well as with in new public management's doctrine) still remains is a
predominantly value
e-government makes public service delivery

don't transforms society,
simply it improve procedures for service delivery or proposes new ones based on ICT
e-gov is public sector's technification who favors positive impacts in the governing institutions and citizens.
Several dimension and factors influence the definition of
. The word “electronic” in the term e-Governance implies technology driven governance.

Through the
, the government services will be made available to the citizens in a convenient, efficient and
Generally four basic models are available: Government to Customer (Citizen), Government to Employees, Government to Government and Government to Business
is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between
( G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.

Secondly: e-governance t is more than e-government
Other administrative doctrines are for example cameralism, burocratic administration, new public management, etc. As an administrative doctrine, shares some normative principles and objectives with another similar approaches (mainly e-government and collaborative governance)
is one-way communication
protocol whereas
is two-way
communication protocol.
As with e-government, in defining e-governance we are still talking about service delivery, and about the (predominant) use of ICT to improve service delivery. Nevertheless, with e-governance concept, the focus is on ICT-based interaction between different economic and social actors, instead of (and not only of) improving public services.
e-government (egov)
open government (OG)
Understanding eGovernance. With some examples in crisis mapping and response to disasters
Source: IdeaCorp and International Development Research Centre: IDRC (2011)
Understanding EGovernment. with an examples of citizen portal of Signapore and Boomi System of Manage Land Records in India

Source: IdeaCorp and International Development Research Centre: IDRC (2011)
OK, we understand now the differences between
e-government and
e-governance, an the importance of open data into those relations, but:

What is open government really means?
What difference does it make?
Based on its principles,
OG is something different from egov and something more than e-governance

OGP Open
Prominent among these NGOs are
Transparency International
or the
Open Society Institute
. They advocate for the implementation of norms regarding openness and transparency across the globe. They argue that such standards are vital to the ongoing prosperity and development of democratic societies.
Transparency and oversight government...
Civil society organizations advocates for open government...
Civil society as a way to make more transparent...
Advocate for norms of openness and transparency...
Active Collaboration
There are rules, regulations and mechanisms in place that call upon government actors to justify their actions, act upon criticisms or requirements made of them, and accept responsibility for failure to perform with respect to laws or commitments.
Governments embrace the importance of providing citizens with open access to technology, the role of new technologies in driving innovation, and the importance of increasing the capacity of citizens to use technology.
Governments seek to mobilize citizens to engage in public debate, provide input, and make contributions that lead to more responsive, innovative and effective governance.
Information on government activities and decisions is open, comprehensive, timely freely available to the public and meets basic open data standards (e.g. raw data, machine readability).
Technology & Innovation
Active collaboration means that citizens, civil society and governments participate and work together in a participative process. Governments need to proactively approach and engage citizens and support civil society in order to increase their capacity to participate.
Third: Open Government is more than Open Data for improving governance
OG (>) open data4(+)gov
Open data is data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike
See more at: http://okfn.org
open data
What is Open Data?

Available on the web (whatever format) but with an open licence, to be Open Data
Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table)
as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel)

All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff
All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
The use of open data to improve governance is of a paramount importance for open government initiatives, since one of the main mechanisms in fighting corruption, empower citizens and be government activities more transparent are open data strategies.

Open data is a fundamental piece to take principles of open government into practice, but it is just a main strategy to achieve it.
1. Is the "Open Government movement" an inevitable feature of contemporary world? Is Hillary Clinton's assertion a valuable insight about a very possible future?

3. Is it possible in contemporary world to achieve constantly progress in economic and social wellbeing without taking into account transparency and accountability demands and without using ICT and open data to empower citizens in policy-making and in the monitoring of government?
6. May the implementation of "open government" into the Arab World "make a big difference"? May be a more accurate and affective approach in improving contemporary governance?
OG (≠) egov
e-governance (>) e-gov
OG (>) open data4 gov
Solving open government
Open Data for improving governance
Open Government
Open Data for Open Government
Open Data
information and communication technologies
Important notice: For educational purposes, this presentation has information from original sources, and video resources from Youtube Channel.

All possible mistakes and information gaps here identified are responsibility of the author of this presentation. Thanks.

2. Is it possible that the implementation of open government initiatives favors the origin or rebirth of political conflicts and be the cause of regime's instabilities episodes?
4. If an Arab country has positively high economic prosperity levels and high levels of happiness (subjective wellbeing) of its inhabitants. May we consider the implementation of open government strategies as an unnecessary task? If transparency and participation are not requested by citizens, Is open government a nonsense and useless approach?
5. Is it possible to broadly apply open government initiatives into the Arab World? What kind of strategies may be first best implemented? How and why?
Thanks. Muchas gracias

César Nicandro CRUZ-RUBIO
Policy Researcher at GIGAPP
Research Group in Government
Administration and Public Policy
Ortega y Gasset Fundation


70 countries belongs to the OGP since 2011
1. Albania 2. Argentina 3. Armenia 4. Australia 5. 6.azerbaijan 6. Brazil 7. Bulgaria 8. Canada 9. Chile 10. Colombia 11. Costa Rica 12. Croatia 13. Czech Republic 14. Denmark 15. Dominican Republic 16. El Salvador 17. Estonia 18. Finland 19. Georgia 20. Ghana 21. Greece 22. Guatemala 23. Honduras 24. Hungary 25. Indonesia 26. Ireland 27. Israel 28. Italy 29.
30. Kenya 31. Latvia 32. Liberia 33. Lithuania 34. Macedonia 35. Malawi 36. Malta 37. Mexico 38. Moldova 39. Mongolia 40. Montenegro
41. Netherlands 42. New Zealand 43. Norway 44. Panama 45. Paraguay 46. Peru 47. Philippines 48. Romania 49. Serbia 50. Sierra Leone 51. Slovak Republic 52. South Africa 53. South Korea 54.
55. Sweden 56. Tanzania 57. Trinidad and Tobago 58. Tunisia 59. Turkey 60. Ukraine 61. United Kingdom 62. United States 63. Uruguay
1.Achieve Eligibility

The first step towards full OGP participation is meeting the OGP eligibility criteria. In order to be eligible to participate in OGP, governments must demonstrate a minimum level of commitment to open government principles in four key areas (Fiscal Transparency, Access to Information, Income and Asset Disclosures, and Citizen Engagement).

A country is eligible to join the OGP if it meets those criteria measured by objective governance indicators using public data sources. To participate in OGP, countries must score at least 75% of the total possible points available to them.
2. Submit Letter of Intent
3. Identify a Lead Ministry or Agency and Begin Developing your Action Plan

What do
you think?
Go to socrative.com (student)
log in into room TYURZDZEA

What is big data and
data analytics?
what is the data spectrum?
A rating system for open data proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. To score the maximum five stars, data must (1) be available on the Web under an open licence, (2) be in the form of structured data, (3) be in a non-proprietary file format, (4) use URIs as its identifiers (see also RDF), (5) include links to other data sources (see linked data). To score 3 stars, it must satisfy all of (1)-(3), etc.
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