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Chapter 22: Ideologies and Upheavals
Transcript of Chapter 22: Ideologies and Upheavals
By Jules and Vincent Aftermath of Napoleonic Wars Prussia, Russia, Austria, and G.B. defeated France; Est. Peace of Paris @ Vienna
Bourbon Dynasty restored, borders increased
Low Countries (Belgium and Holland) united to oppose France
leniency combined w/ defensive measures
Internal struggles remained in victorious countries
Napolean escaped Elba --- Defeated in 1815, led to Second Peace of Paris
Congress of Vienna led to European congress system that lasted into the nineteenth century Repressing Revolutionary Spirit 1815 - Dual Revolution occurs in Austria and Prussia
Leads to Holy Alliance which represses liberal and revolutionary movements in Europe
After revolutionary success in 1820's, Quad Alliance restored Autocratic regimes in Europe
German Confederation developed: 38 German states, influence by Metternich
Metternich and German Conf. issued Carlsbad Decrees to uphold conservative policies---- rooted out any "ideas" Metternich: The man, the mystery Strong supporter of Conservatism, and idea of nobility. Metternich blamed liberal movements in Revolutionary America and France for "untold bloodshed
mainly blamed middle-class for issues
Simply afraid of Liberal ideas because they threatened power of Austrian Empire
Population of Austria was eclectic:
Germans 1/4, Magyars (Hungarian), Czech, many more
amount of different ethnic groups led to lack of Nationalism, or national identity = good for Metternich
Metternich supported by Russia and Ottoman Empire in anti-liberalism stance Spread of Radical Ideas Although revolution was suppressed, the ideas did not die
Characteristics of Liberalism:
first true success in American and French Rev.
Rep. Gov, equality before the law, individual freedoms (speech, press, etc.)
laissez faire economic policy
Adam Smith argued free market gave citizens equal opportunity; resulted in greater income
While rep. gov existed, many restrictions on voting and holding office existed (property ownership req.=class distinction)
Post 1815, many felt Liberalism did not go far enough, called for universal suffrage, and complete democracy Appeal of Nationalism Nationalism was another radical idea
Originated in French Revolution and Napoleonic wars
Johann Gotfried von Herder -- early nationalist
Nationalism entailed cultural unity common language, history, and territory
conditions in Europe did NOT bode well for nationalism
Need for communication promoted Nationalism through common language
Idea of "nations" est. in nineteenth century from nationalism
Nationalism and Liberalism similar in faith in humans, benefits of self government, and common traditions in nation-states
liberty of free ind. and love for a country overlapped
Nationalism often led to a superiority complex French Socialism Socialism developed in France in 1815:
Laissez Faire, and modern industry created selfish individualism
Socialism entailed.... government organized economy, not depend on competition; rich and poor should be almost exactly equal economically; property should be under gov. control as well
Important people in French Socialism:
Count Henri de Saint-Simon
believed gov and society should be led by scientists, engineers, and industrialists
called for calculated society; abolition of marriage
Universal voting rights; peaceful worker takeover of state
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
believed property was stolen profit from the worker
Socialists message and plight of French workers interacted closely Marxian Socialism Communist Manifesto:
The history of society involved class struggles -- In Germany, society was split into Bourgeoisie and Proletariat; Bourgeoisie = Middle class, Proletariat = modern working class
The bourgeoisie had taken over society from the ruling elite, Marx theorized it was now time for the Proletariat to take over society from the Bourgeoisie.
Marx was not a revolutionary, but merely understood the patterns of society thus far Romantic Movement Artistic change was revolt against rationality and order of neo-classicism
Romanticism characterized by intense emotion and imagnination, and focus on nature
Romanticism saw reaching full human potential as purpose of life
Poetry was voice of Romanticism
Novels involving fantastical characters and plots were common (i.e. Hunchback of Notre Dame)
Fables and fairy tales dominated children's literature
Art and Music
Art marked by landscape, abstract, religious, and high emotion paintings
Music shared high emotion with striking chords, and intense finales Reformers and Revolutions Before 1848 Liberal, national, and socialist forces fought the conservatism of 1815. Change occurred gradually and peacefully in some countries but not in others. National Liberation In Greece Greeks had been supressed by the Ottoman Turks since the 15th century.
National aspirations and a desire for independence inspired Greeks in the early 19th century.
Secret societies formed which led to revolt in 1821 (led by Alexander Ypsilanti).
The great powers (especially Metternich) opposed all revolution and did not support Ypsilanti.
Greeks found support support in writers, artists, and educated class.
1827 finally Britain, France, and Russia intervened in favor of the Greeks.
Turks refused to accept armistice, causing the great powers to attack and eventually declare Greece independent in 1830. Liberal Reform in Great Britain 18th century British society had people's basic civil rights balanced by their social superiors.
1780's: Growing interest in political reform halted by French Revolution panic among aristocracy.
The Revision of the Corn laws sparked conflicts between ruling class and laborers
Due to timing, the revision caused widespread protests of the laborers, supported by radical intellectuals.
Parliament issued the infamous Six Acts which controlled heavily taxed press, and banned mass meetings. Ireland and ze Great Famine People of Ireland were ruled by Protestant England
The condition of the Irish peasantry around 1800 was abominable, described by novelist Sir Walter Scott as “the extreme verge of human misery.”
British Government did little to improve and continued to collect taxes
Great Potato Famine:
1.5 Million died, 1 million emigrated
Increased anti-british and Irish nationalist feelings
Revolution of 1830
Louis XVIII Constitutional Charter of 1814 was liberal const. that protected the middle class and peasantry
Limited right to vote, about 100,00 males
Charles X turned to military exploits to increase french nationalism and re-establish old order Revolution of 1830 contd. Charles repudiated constitutional charter: censored press, stripped voting rights
A coup took place at the hands of the middle-class; "three glorious days" the government collapsed and Charles Fled
Louis Phillipe placed on the throne
admitted his ruling for the people
took on red, white, and blue flag
Despite symbolic actions, the fundamental situation remained unchanged in France Revolutions of 1948 Democratic Republic of France
Economic crises of 1840's led to social and political unrest; Revolution was expected and accepted
Took first form in Paris in 1848
Louis Phillipe refused to send troops; Revolutionary's took it as a victory, drafted constitution, and established exec committee
Established voting for all males, ten-hour work day, and freed all slaves in French colonies
Radical vs Liberal Republicans:
Liberal didn't want further change
Radical disliked capitalism and wanted unions and worker owned businesses
Revolution pt. 2: artisans and unskilled workers took over constituent, May 15 Revolutions of 1848 contd. The powerful and radical "workshops" revolted once again
After three terrible "June days" and many deaths, a republican army stood triumphant.
Louis Napolean was elected head of the republic
The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary in 1848, where nationalistic Hungarians demanded national autonomy, full civil liberties, and universal suffrage. When the monarchy in Vienna hesitated, Viennese students and workers took to the streets, while peasant disorders broke out in parts of the empire.
The coalition of revolutionaries was not stable and once the monarchy abolished serfdom, the newly free peasants lost interest in the political and social questions agitating the cities. Meanwhile, the coalition of urban revolutionaries broke down along class lines over the issue of socialist workshops and universal voting rights for men.
Revolutions of 1848 contd. In March the Hungarian revolutionary leaders pushed through an extremely liberal, almost democratic, constitution, but they also sought to transform Hungary’s multitude of peoples into a unified and centralized Hungarian nation. To the minority groups that formed half of the population—the Croats, Serbs, and Romanians—unification was unacceptable, as each group felt entitled to political autonomy and cultural independence.
Finally, the conservative aristocratic forces regained their nerve under the rallying call of the archduchess Sophia, Ferdinand’s sister-in-law, who insisted that Ferdinand abdicate in favor of her son, Francis Joseph. On June 17, the army bombarded Prague and savagely crushed a working-class revolt.
After Francis Joseph (r. 1848–1916) was crowned emperor of Austria, Nicholas I of Russia (r. 1825–1855) sent 130,000 Russian troops into Hungary on June 6, 1849, and they subdued the country after bitter fighting. For a number of years, the Habsburgs ruled Hungary as a conquered territory.
One more Folks, hang in there Prussia and the Frankfurt Assembly
When the artisans and factory workers in Berlin joined temporarily with middle-class liberals in March 1848 in the struggle against the Prussian monarchy, the autocratic yet compassionate Frederick William IV (r. 1840–1861) vacillated and finally caved in. On March 21, he promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state.
In May, a National Assembly convened in Frankfurt to write a German federal constitution, but the members of the Assembly were distracted by Denmark’s claims on the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein, which were inhabited primarily by Germans. The National Assembly called on the Prussian army to respond, and Prussia subsequently began war with Denmark.
In March 1849, the National Assembly finally completed its drafting of a liberal constitution and elected King Frederick William of Prussia emperor of the new German national state. Frederick William reasserted his royal authority, disbanded the Prussian Constituent Assembly, and granted his subjects a limited, essentially conservative constitution.
When Frederick William, who really wanted to be emperor but only on his own authoritarian terms, tried to get the small monarchs of Germany to elect him emperor, Austria balked. Supported by Russia, Austria forced Prussia to renounce all its schemes of unification in late 1850, and the German Confederation was re-established. Attempts to unite the Germans—first in a liberal national state and then in a conservative Prussian empire—had failed completely.