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Lighting

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by

Louise Campbell

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of Lighting

FILM LIGHTING TECHNIQUES
Lighting is a core aspect of film making. The way a scene is lit can create an emotional response in the viewer. Lighting can help define characters and sometimes an entire scene .

SOME OTHER BASIC LIGHTING TECHNIQUES...

(Make notes please!)
Hard Lighting

Hard light creates crisp and harsh shadows. The light is being projected along a narrow path. The stream of light goes in only one direction until it hits the subject.

Soft Lighting

The light is more diffused and evenly spread out. Soft light refers to light that tends to "wrap" around objects, casting diffuse shadows with soft edges.

Soft light is when a light source is large relative to the subje
ct
, hard light is when the light
sour
ce is small relati
v
e to the
subje
ct
.
Frontal Lighting
Frontal lighting attempts to extinguish all shadows.

It is sometimes called key lighting.


Side Lighting

Side lighting is very effective at producing an emotional response in a character by highlighting noses, cheekbones and lips. This effect is usually accompanied by hard shadows cast to the other side of the actor.
with side lighting, the face is lit more intensely on one side than the other.
Back Lighting

Backlighting refers to the process of illuminating the subject from the back. This causes the edges of the subject to glow, while the other areas remain darker.


Under Lighting

Under lighting is light that comes from below the subject.

Under lighting is used quite effectively to produce scenes of horror because it can produce a grotesque effect on the features of a face.
Key Lighting

Key lighting has no side lighting to diffuse the shadows and so a face can appear as a slash of white in the darkness surrounding it. The key light provides exacting illumination of the subject and is sometimes accompanied by fill lighting.
Fill Lighting

Fill lighting is used to soften the shadows produce by key lighting. When fill lighting is used with back lighting, it can produce a striking image of a dark character within a dark setting.
Silhouette Lighting

Silhouette lighting creates dark, strongly outlined silhouettes against a bright background. This can be an effective technique for introducing unknown characters to the audience.

To achive this technique we can arrange the lights in such a way as to leave darkness between the area illuminated by the backlight and the area illuminated by the fill light, depending on how moody we want the shot to be.
When we relocate the camera to shoot a different angle, the lights must be moved as well to ensure the subject is always lit correctly. Setting up lights is the most time-consuming task in film shoots. It is a good practice to shoot a scene in such a way as to minimize the need to relocate lights .
Equipment used in film
OPEN-FACED TUNGSTEN
Tungsten lights are simply larger versions of the everyday lighting found in your home, using a filament of tungsten wire. There are two types: studio, a full size lamp and a smaller “baby” light; in reality these can both be pretty much any size, but the baby version is always the smaller of two lights of the same type, making them handier for location work as they’re more portable.
LED lighting consists of series of small diodes which are extremely energy efficient and produce a lot more lumens (brightness) of light at a given wattage. Another side to this efficiency is that they remain cool to the touch throughout their use, making them a safer and more easy-to-handle than many other types of lights.

Their colour temperature tends to have a very white daylight balance of around 5600K; while they are available in other colour variations, this tends to be the most popular following on from the widespread use of fluorescent lighting.
LEDS
A fresnel is a type of lens placed in front of lamps such as tungsten sources in order to focus the light given off into a controllable beam. This is very useful in creating a spotlight effect, as well as being able to cover a relatively small portion of a scene. A fresnel light, therefore, is simply a light falling into any category which utilises such a fresnel lens in front of the bulb, traditionally a tungsten light such as an 800w redhead, although more recently we’ve seen a growing trend in LED versions and bigger-budget lighting solutions such as HMIs also sometimes utilise fresnels.
FRESNEL
HMIS

While producing three to four times the amount of a light of a tungsten halogen, the more pricy HMI lamp consumes up to 75% less energy for the same output. Because of this energy efficiency, like LEDs HMIs also generate considerably less heat than tungsten lights. HMIs are closer to daylight than tungsten at a colour temperature of about 5600K, minimising the need for corrective filters on outdoor shoots.
FLUORESCENT TUBES

Colour-corrected fluorescent tubes are an extremely popular lighting method because of their portability and compact nature. Originally created by the Kino Flo company in 1987, this brand remains the most common for these lights. Using ballasts which are extremely quiet, the lights also do not flicker due to their high frequency, and are completely colour corrected to match either daylight or tungsten. In a pinch an uncorrected fluorescent will provide the same quality of light as a corrected one, but will cast a green tinge over a scene which results in undesirable skin tones .
These handheld, battery operated lights come in two basic varieties: tungsten and HMI. Tungsten sunguns are normally 12 or 30 volt, powered by a battery belt; running time for these is about 20 minutes. HMI sunguns have a daylight balance and are more efficient.
These small lights are utilized to pick out highlights missed by larger lighting in a scene, in order to provide extra definition to the less-noticed areas of the frame. They are also extremely useful in order to ensure that you actor or model is given some much-desired eye light.
SUNGUNS


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighting

http://www.ehow.com/about_4740753_basic-types-lighting-photography.html 1999-2013 Demand Media,

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/photography-video/digital-photography/using-the-camera/shooting/lighting-methods.html

http://photoinf.com/General/NAVY/Basic_lighting_techniques-_Outdoor_and_Existing_ligt_photography.htm

http://www.academia.edu/1746322/lighting_principles_in_interior_design_of_managment_spaces

http://www.skwirk.com.au/p-c_s-54_u-251_t-647_c-2411/camera-shots-angles-and-movement-lighting-cinematography-and-mise-en-scene/nsw/camera-shots-angles-and-movement-lighting-cinematography-and-mise-en-scene/skills-by-text-type-film/film-overview

http://www.hurlbutvisuals.com/blog/2012/08/the-power-of-lighting-for-cinematography-with-just-two-lights-we-are-marshall/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinematography

http://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/types-of-light-in-photography/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-key_lighting

http://hddv.net/showthread.php?46780-Ambient-Lighting-Cinematography

http://www.filmschoolonline.com/sample_lessons/sample_lesson_cinematography.htm

http://www.meetup.com/Light-and-Shadow/

http://www.vulture.com/2012/11/how-steven-spielberg-cinematographer-janusz-kaminski-got-these-shots.html

http://www.filmmakers.com/features/cinematography/
Q 2 )What are the steps required to shoot a movie ?

A 2 )Avoid Zooming In and Out Too Much
Have to be steady
Good understanding of the location
The order the movie has to be shot
Short and Simple
Lighting, Lighting, Lighting
Change of Perspective
Learn from The Movies
Conserve the Battery
Check The Sound
Q 1 )Name some of the other light sources that can be used ?

A 2 )Rim Lighting
Ambient Light
Soft or Diffuse Light
Spotlight
Various Combinations of Lighting
Street Light
Sunlight
Halogen Light
Neon Light
Studio Strobes
Directional Light
Q 3 )Can we use Street light to give a good lighting ?

A 3 )Yes , we can use the street light but it really depends on the mood we are going for ,Like neon lights, sodium-vapor lights use pressurized gas to produce light. You can identify sodium-vapor lights by their yellow illumination. If we takeing a long night exposure using street lamps as the light source, we can notice an eerie yellow-orange glow pervade in the shot.
Q 4 )What is Low-key Lighting ?

A 4 )Low-key lighting is a style of lighting for photography, film or television. It is a necessary element in creating a chiaroscuro effect. Traditional photographic lighting, three-point lighting uses a key light, a fill light, and a back light for illumination. Low-key lighting often uses only one key light, optionally controlled with a fill light or a simple reflector.
Low key light accentuates the contours of an object by throwing areas into shade while a fill light or reflector may illuminate the shadow areas to control contrast.
example of low key lighting
Q 5 ) "How to create SHADOW?"
A 5 )Just switch on a light and flood a scene with light and make it flat and boring. But it is with shadows that you create shape, dimension, depth, and mood.So it always depends on how dark or light we need to keep depending on the mood .
Q 6 )Why Film making need light ?
A 6 ) There is more to cinematography than simply
making the actors visible and photographing them. For top
results, the mood of the film must be carefully crafted with
lighting, amongst other things. Not to mention the fact that
there are many situations in which natural light will not result
in exposure at all.

One of the biggest myths is that shooting video requires
fewer lights than shooting on film. This is completely incorrect,
because film can handle a much larger contrast range than video,
and therefore suffers less if the lighting is excessively high-contrast.when the lighting is not perfectly fine-tuned in
such a way that the brightest spot in the scene it is no more than
three stops hotter than the darkest point in the scene
Reference
Q and A
production , scene , lighting ,
cinematic film , shadows ,diffuse , light source , frontal , illuminate ,conjunction , emotional , highlighting , backlight , artificial , under lighting , grotesque , darkness , silhouette lighting , audience , techniques , frontal light , color , temperature ,diffuser , thungston , portable,widespread,fluorescent ,
KEYWORDS
Learning Intention
1. Learn some of the key lighting terms and lighting techniques used in film.

2. Be able to use these appropriately in an imaginary film sequence.
Why study lighting?
Can you explain what each of the following lighting types is?
Stroboscopic Lighting
Spotlighting
Imagine you are a lighting director.
Design the lighting for the following scene...
The scene opens in a park at twilight.

The city traffic is continuous in the background, outside the park.

A little boy and his sister are being told it is time to come away by their bored, tired babysitter.

Someone is hidden, watching the young woman walking away and the children still playing.

Darkness falls and the boy looks at the girl in fear, suddenly realising it is dark and the babysitter is gone.

The girl has not realised.

We see the face of the hidden person as their face breaks into a slow, horrible smile.
Plenary
Can you identify at least 3 of the lighting techniques we have looked at today and explain what they are?
Learn some of the key lighting terms and lighting techniques used in film.
Full transcript