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History of CTE
Transcript of History of CTE
Turn of the Century Influential Figures Legislation The Future? CTE Today What does all of this history net us? As a Junior High student, you have the opportunity to take some control over your education early by exploring CTE routes that interest you. A more prepared and rounded student (that's you!)
Expansion of STEM
(Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math)
Preparation for jobs that don't exist yet, using tools that haven't been invented (how can we do that?)
More CTE in Middle Schools and Junior Highs
(What courses would you like to see here?)
Globalization and the democratization of information
The new 3 Rs: Rigor, Relevance, and Relationships 1862 - Morrill Act
1917 - Smith-Hughes Act
1958 - National Defense Education Act
1963 - Perkins-Morse Bill
1972 - Title IX
1984 - Perkins Act
1990 - Perkins Update
1994 - School to Work Act
2001 - No Child Left Behind
2006 - Perkins Again! Welcome to the wonderful world of CTE! Wait, what the heck is CTE? It's what you're doing right now, in this class! It's learning not only the skills tools necessary to enter a career in computer technology, but also honing the habits that will make you successful anywhere you end up after high school. It's the latest iteration of a tradition that can be traced all the way back to the craftsman's guilds of Medieval Europe. Hold on now, Guilds?
What does this have to
do with computer tech? Maybe it's best if we take a step back first. Follow me. Apprenticeship As an apprentice, you would serve under a master craftsman for 5-10 years, during that time you would:
Learn the master's trade (including trade secrets!)
Receive room and board in lieu of pay
Learn general education related to your trade
If you were successful, you could then enter that trade as a professional (and finally get paid). If not, you might continue the apprenticeship, or move on to something else.
Ladies - as usual, history was not so kind. Long story short, you could apprentice until 18, or marriage (whichever came first). With the rise of the Industrial Revolution, machines automated jobs that once required trained craftsmen, while the workers needed to operate that machinery still needed education and training. Those workers, however, didn't need the kind of highly specialized in-depth training offered by apprenticeships, and could learn many of the necessary skills on-the-job.
In response to this need, free elementary schools were established and a new era of generalized education was born. The Rise of the Machines Formalization of Vocational Ed A new age calls for a new approach to technical training, so a series of national acts sought to provide more opportunities to train workers for jobs in agriculture, engineering, and other growing vocational fields. Among the changes impacting vocational education at the turn of the 20th century were:
WWI and WWII require a skilled labor force
Rosie the Riveter and the female wartime work force
Land Grant Universities bring vocations into higher ed
4-H introduces young people to vocational ed Established Land Grant Universities
to provide vocational training alongside
traditional academic degree programs Brought vocational education into high schools by allocating funds for agriculture, home ec, trade, and teacher training. In response to the Soviet Sputnik satellite, the US invests in technical training programs to compete in the space race The Vocational Education Act mandated that vocational ed meet the needs of students as well as the needs of industry Title IX of the Education Amendments was the first major stride towards gender equity in education, a big concern in CTE. Built on the gender equity of Title IX while shifting focus from expanding programs to providing sufficient funding. Created collaborative partnerships between school and businesses to address the growing need for a skilled workforce. This update changed the terminology from Vocational Education to Career and Technical Education, continued integration of CTE and academic programs, and increased overall accountability. Mandated that schools achieve Adequate Yearly Progress on standardized assessments or risk loosing funding, students, and localized control. This also established requirements for teachers to be Highly Qualified in their content areas. An update to the Perkins act of 1984, this new iteration focused on integrating vocational ed with academic programs. Jean Jacques Rousseau
1712 - 1778 His novel Émile describes the education of a boy through discovery and interaction with the world. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
1746 – 1827
Highly influenced by Rousseau's Émile, Pestalozzi developed his own teaching method which emphasized learning through doing, a practice that is still reflected in CTE courses today. Ellen Swallow Richards
1842 – 1911
The first full-time female student at MIT, and later the first female instructor there, Ellen Swallow Richards was the driving force behind the Home Economics Movement. Booker T. Washington
1856 – 1915 Founder of the Tuskegee Institute, where he created many vocational programs. Washington placed an emphasis on problem solving, self-discipline, morality, and service. W.E.B. Du Boise
1868 – 1963 Du Boise famously debated with Washington regarding the education of African Americans. While Washington was in favor of vocational training, Du Boise insisted upon the need for traditional academic education. John Dewey
1859-1952 Dewey's research played a major role in all aspects of education in the middle of the 20th century. He was critical of traditional liberal education, claiming that it did not prepare students with the skills and attitudes necessary to succeed in the age of science. Charles Prosser
1871-1952 Though Prosser's Sixteen Theorems are still considered relevant and used in CTE programs today, his belief that academic and vocational education should be separate is contrary to recent integration efforts. Carl D Perkins
Also known as "that guy from all of those bills," Perkins was a House Representative from Kentucky from 1949 to 1984. As the chairman of the Congressional Committee on Education and Labor, Perkins championed vocational education and access to education for the under privileged. You've got opportunities to learn about: Career and Technical
Student Organizations (CTSOs) Sources Gordon, Howard R. D. The History and Growth of Career and Technical Education in America, Third Edition. Copyright 2008