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Nuclear Medicine

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by

Lenka Kollar

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of Nuclear Medicine

Other Medical Imaging Techniques
CT Scan
- uses x-rays and computed tomography to form a 3D image
Nuclear Imaging
Nuclear imaging uses a radioisotope tracer to track processes in the body
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRI uses magnetic fields to map the density of hydrogen in tissue
Internal Treatment
Radiopharmaceuticals are implanted in the body and emit ionizing radiation
External
Treatment
Nuclear Medicine
CT Scan of human brain
Ultrasound image of a fetus
X-Ray Imaging
X-rays are photons generated by the excitation of electrons
Hydrogen atoms align along the magnetic field
Photons penetrate soft tissue but not hard material, like bones
Photons that do pass through the body hit a film to produce an image
Radio frequency waves are used to image this alignment
Ultrasound
- uses sound waves to form a real-time, moving image
Paired with medical imaging, like a CT scan, it can show anatomy
and
function
PET Scan
Positron Emission Tomography
Patient is injected with a positron-emitting radioactive tracer
Machine tracks the pair of gamma rays from electron-positron annihilation as tracer travels through blood stream
Reconstructs the signal into an image
Normal PET/CT Scan
Abnormal PET/CT Scan
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Patient is injected with a gamma-emitting radioisotope
3D image is formed from detecting single gamma rays emitted
The radiation travels a short distance to damage the surrounding area (e.g. tumor), but not other organs
Unsealed radioisotope therapy examples:
Brachytherapy
uses
sealed radiation sources that can be implanted temporarily or permanently
permanent low-dose seeds used for prostate cancer
Beam technology is used for cancer treatment
Energy and particle
type selected based on the
type of cancer and location
in the body
Similar to X-rays,
but the radiation
is at a much
greater energy
Radiation targeted at tumor to kill the cancer
Multiple angles of entry are chosen to minimize damage
to skin and healthy
tissues
Strontium-89
: bone pain

treatment
(T1/2 = 50 days)
Yttrium-90
: Lymphoma
(T1/2 = 64 hours)
Iodine-131
: thyroid cancer (T1/2 = 8 days)
Full transcript