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Final Presentation for P248

Bianca Critzer

on 26 April 2010

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Transcript of Autism

Autism Treatments Symptoms Causes & Compications •You will probably know by the time your child is 18 months old, and has problems with pretend play, social interactions, and verbal and nonverbal communication •People with Autism may… Be overly sensitive in sight, hearing, touch, smell, or taste Have odd distress when a certain routine is changed Perform repeated body movements Show unusual attachments to objects •Have problems with communication: Cannot keep a normal, social conversation going Communicate with gestures Slow at developing language, or no language Repeats words or memorized passages that they here •Have social interaction problems: Does not make friends easily Does not play interactive games Has trouble responding to eye contact or facial expressions such as smiling Would usually rather be alone •Has trouble responding to sensory information... Does not get startled to loud noises Has low senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, or taste Sometimes they find normal noises painful Like feeling specific surfaces •Has difficulty with play… Does not imitate other’s actions Does not do pretend or imaginative play usually •Can have behavioral problems… “Acts up,” and throw tantrums Gets stuck on one topic or task Has a short attention span Shows aggression Uses repetitive body movements •Treatments is especially successful when it is geared to the individual’s specific needs •Applied Behavioral Analysis This uses a one-on-one approach, and reinforces the practice of skills It is usually done in a child’s home It is very expensive, and not normally recommended by school systems •TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children This is another program like ABA It uses pictures and cues to help the children work independently and help them cope with their environment. •Medicine They are used to treat behavior or emotional problems such as aggression, anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, mood swings, outbursts, tantrums, or sleep difficulty. •Diet Some children respond to a gluten-free diet. Not all studies have shown a huge difference, but it does work on many. The child needs to receive enough calories, nutrients, and a balanced diet •Some Other Approaches Some other treatments that may work for specific children with Autism may include Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, and Speech-language Therapy. No single cause No two children with autism are alike One accepted theory: abnormalities in brain structure or function Links in heredity, genetics and medical problems Many families- autism (or other disabilities) is a pattern BUT no one gene has been linked to autism Another theory: some children are born with susceptibility but no trigger is known Research being done on genetics, problems during pregnancy and delivery and environmental factors Genetics people with fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrome, and PKU (phenylketonuria) a number of genes possibly involved Environmental environmental toxins (mercury and heavy metals) Problems during labor/delivery Damage to the amygdala may play role Controversial issue link between autism and childhood vaccines? (MMR or other vaccines with thimerosal-which has mercury)
however, extensive research shows no link
Risk Factors Paternal age- study of children with dads over 40 almost 6 times more likely to have autism than kids with dads under 30 (maternal age = little effect) Boys 3-4 times more likely to develop autism than girls family history other disorders:
(fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, tourette syndrome, epilepsy)
Complications Some people with autism may develop seizures Stresses of dealing with disability can lead to social and emotional complications for both the person with autism and the family http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_whatcauses










Asperger’s vs. Autism Asperger’s is a form of Autism but with fewer symptoms. Autistic-related disease not to be confused with Autism Autistic children have severe mistakes in language development, Asperger children- language skills aren’t really affected at all Children affected by Asperger’s disease have normal or above average cognitive development Autistic children have cognitive impairments The two socially interact differently. Autistic children can come across as cocky or to not really care about children around them Children with Asperger’s disease come across as just socially awkward- no knowledge of social rules and proper mannerisms Asperger’s disease creates children that become obsessed with things- not with Autistic children Associated conditions- metal retardation- 75-80% of autistics have some level of mental retardation, seizures, tuberous sclerosis- occurs in about 25% of autistics, tourette syndrome, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, emotional problems, impulse-control disorders, psychoses, obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, allergies, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disorders Teaching a Student with Autism Clear guidelines should be provided with specific behaviors that are accepted The students should have a written schedule or one that is shown in pictures The curriculum needs to be based on the students characteristics Communicate with parents
-They usually can tell you what interests the student and what motivates him or her Give the student choices. Reasearch has shown that if a student chooses his or her activity they are more likely to be engaged. To sustain motivation, continuous reinforcement is cruicial It is best to teach the student one on one or in small groups PBS (Positive Behavior Support) PBS starts with a behavioral assessment then creates an individualzed plan This can include alternative teaching methods and ways to deal with behavior problems Elementary school focus' on academic material High school focus' on ways shifting from childhood to adulthood Ways to Spot Autism in the Classroom the student may not seem interested in the other childrens games or may not know how to join in Does not understand the affect his behavior has on others May be targeted for bullying Does not realized social cues like when it is time to end a conversation or when it is time for someone else to talk When talking to the student they may want to talk about the same topic every time. The students seems like they want to be alone The student seems to have selective hearing and may appear to be deaf at times
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