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Cellular Respiration Project

Shailing M. Santiago, AP Biology
by

Shailing S

on 19 December 2012

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration Project

CELLULAR RESPIRATION Who uses cellular respiration? ALL ORGANISMS! Why is it important? Cellular respiration is important because all cells use oxygen to convert food into energy. If there was no cellular respiration cells would die because they would be lacking the oxygen needed for food conversion and they would also have problems getting rid of their waste products. Equation for Cellular Respiration:  C H O 6 12 6 Glucose + 6 O 2 Oxygen gas 6 CO 2 Carbon dioxide + 6 H O 2 Water + ATPs Energy It's basically like saying: air is important to us because if we don't breathe we die... Cellular respiration consists of a sequence of steps, which can be divided into three main stages: Glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid of the cell. Cytosol Glucose 2
pyruvate 4 ATP 2 NADH Glycolysis starts by breaking glucose into two molecules called pyruvate. While this process takes place, the cell reduces two molecules of NAD , forming two molecules of NADH, and it also produces four molecules of ATP. + Krebs Cycle Krebs Cycle 2 CO 2 3 3 NAD + NADH + 3 H + ADP + P ATP FAD FADH 2 The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria. Cytosol Mitochondria The overall production per molecule of glucose is 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2FADH 2 All Inputs:
CoA*
NAD
Acetyl Acid*
2 NAD
ADP+P
FAD + + 2 All Outputs:
CO
NADH
CoA
2 NADH
ATP
FADH
4 c-molecules* 2 * (Not shown on diagram) All Inputs:
2 ATP*
NAD *
2 ADP+ 2P*
Glucose All Outputs:
4ATP
2 NADH
2 H *
2 Pyruvate
2 H O* + 2 + *(Not shown on diagram) By: Shailing M. Santiago
AP Biology NADH NAD + FADH 2 FAD H O 2 O 2 H + + 2 1 2 H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + Electron Carrier Protein Complex Electron Transport Chain ADP + P ATP H + H + H + ATP synthase Chemiosmosis Electron Transport Chain Electron transport chain occurs in the inner membrane of a mitochondria. Most ATP production occurs by Oxydative Phosphorylation, which is basically the Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis.
In the process of the ETC, NADH is converted into NAD + H and it looses 2 electrons.
Electrons go into the ETC while giving small amounts of ATP to push H to the mitochondrion's intermembrane space.
All electrons "fall" down the ETC and at the end there's an oxygen atom that will accept 2 electrons from the chain and will pick up two hydrogen ions to form H O. 2 + + + All Inputs:
NADH + H
ADP + P
FADH
O All Outputs:
NAD
FADH
H O
ATP 2 + 2 2 + Fermentation Fermentation takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. But what happens when there's not enough oxygen to continue with the cellular respiration process? ocurrs. Fermentation
is an anaerobic
alternative to
cellular respiration. It follows the same first step that cellular respiration uses, which is glycolysis because glycolysis doesn't require oxygen either. Glycolysis 2
Pyruvate Glycolysis 2
Pyruvate 2
Lactate 2
Ethanol 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 CO 2 released Lactid Acid Fermentation Fermentation Alcohol There's two types of fermentation: Lactid Acid Fermentation which our muscles cells, a few other cell types, and some bacterias produce.

Alcohol Fermantation which is done by yeast and some kinds of bacterias. (People have used this type of fermentation for a long time in brewing, winemaking, and baking) All Inputs:
Products of Glycolysis All Outputs:
2 NAD
2 Lactate or 2 Ethanol
and 2 CO + 2 Resources: Biology Concepts & Connections Textbook
Ch. 6; 6.1 - 6.13 (Pg. 90-101) Wikipedia THANKS FOR WATCHING! The cellular respiration process can produce up to 38 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule.
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