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The kingdoms of Axum and Kush
Transcript of The kingdoms of Axum and Kush
Axum took place around 50-400 AD. It was located in East Africa. Also, it was Southeast of Kush. Axum was rugged land on the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, very close to the Mediterranean Sea by Tara Maloney Axum (also known as Aksum) Political Organization Cultural Characteristics Economy Axum Axum was a kingdom of great wealth and trade. Axum was famous for trade in gold, ivory, jewelry and textiles. Axum's location on the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean caused an ideal center of trade Social Organization Axum Social Organization started with Kings and Priests, then warriors and rulers, after that skilled trader, merchants and minor officials, then unskilled workers lastly, slaves. Most Axums worked as famers. Their job was to bring mountain water to the working fields. Others worked as architects and builders. They built monuments, thrones and pillars. Axum Axum was originally a polytheistic kingdom influenced by Arabic religion, until King Ezana (320 AD) converted to a monophysitic Christian. From then on, Axum became one of the first Christian states in the world and Christianity was rapidly spreading throughout the kingdom. Although Christianity was the donimant religion, the Aksumites beliefs were slightly different, because their belief was that Christ had one nature which was both human and divine. Religious Beliefs Axum Axum's believed in many gods.They also worshiped spirits, honored dead and offered sacrifices. Axum was the first major kingdom to completely convert to Christianity. Military Successes or Failures Axum Technological Achievements Axum The Kingdom of Axum was the first kingdom south of the Sahara to mint their own coins. They also created a method of agriculture called terrace farming. They also built damns and cisterns. Forms of Artistic Expression Axum
Kush began north of the first cataract on the Nile River.
It extended beyond the sixth cataract to present day Khartoum.Kush became a rich and powerful nation.
Kush was a land of natural wealth. They had gold mines, ivory, incense, and iron ore. Unlike Egypt, in Kush, they were not dependent upon the flooding of the Nile. They had good soil to grow crops and long growing seasons and enjoyed rainfall all year long.
The Golden Age of Kush was 800 BC to 350 AD. The Kush empire crumbled in 350 A.D when axum took over its main city Meroe, which brought about the total collapse of the whole civilization. Kush Kush Kush exported iron products of iron hoes, knives and spears.They exported raw materials frankincense, hides, and carnelian.Carnelian is a stone used for jewelry and for arrowheads. They sent caravans of camels loaded with trade goods into Egypt carrying gold, ivory, and ebony. Kush imported cotton textiles and goods from India, Arabia, and China. Kush was an active trading center for 600 years, and then it began to decline. Kush Kushites learned to work copper and bronze. They also learned the secret of iron-melting from the Assyrians. There were iron ore deposits near Meroe, the capital of Kush. They also had plenty of trees to fuel the smelting furnaces. Blacksmiths were putting out iron hoes, knives and spears. The common people lived in farming villages. They were able to grow large amounts of grain using iron hoes. Kush Archaeologists have found ceramic figurines, bowls and funerary objects from the kushites. In an excavated temple, an interior wall was found with Egyptian pictures. The pictures included Nile fishing boats, bullfights and an enormous crocodile. Another wall was covered with rows of giraffes and hippopotamuses. Sandstone palaces and houses of red brick filled the city. Walls of buildings were tiled in yellow and blue or covered with paintings. In 1570 - 1100 BC, the Coptic language, spoken in Egypt, became widely used in everyday activities. Kush In Meroe there was a huge temple dedicated to Amon-Re. Small pyramids were modeled after Egyptian pyramidsThey were in the Royal Cemetery. They mummified their dead, so they believed in an after-life. During the years 1570-110 BC, the Kushite elite adopted Egyptian gods. They built temples like that dedicated to the sun god Amon at Napata, near present-day Kuraymah. The temples remained centers of official religious worship until the coming of Christianity to the region in the sixth century. Kush Kush Axum Kush Axum Axum had a wealthy kingdom and a powerful army. The kingdom reached its height of power under the rule of King Ezana (320 AD), under his rule Axum was able to defeat the rival trading kingdom of Kush. As a result, Axum controlled the trade region in the east. At the kingdom's height, it stretched as far as northern Sudan, most of Eritrea, Yemen, and across the Red Sea to part of southern Saudi Arabia. Axum's political structure was based on a system similar to feudalism. The king's local rulers payed tribute to own the neighboring land. Kush Works Cited 1. http://suite101.com/article/kush-civilization-1000-bce-350-ce-a166988
5. http://www.ethiopianhistory.com/Decline_of_Aksum Similar to Egyptian society, the king was the most powerful leader in the land. However, unlike in Egypt, the people of Kush could remove the king if they felt the ruler was unjust, unfair, abusive, irresponsible or incapable. The Kushite kings had to use their mothers as their main political advisors. Although the pharaoh’s position in Egypt was traditionally a man’s role, in Kush both women and men became rulers. The Kushite king appointed leaders to govern the localities, which paid taxes and other subsidies to the king. The local leaders, though, were very independent and made sure that the people in their regions lived well and had sufficient autonomy. Sometimes referred to as Meroites, Kushites developed their own language and writing system that replaced Egyptian language and Hieroglyphics. They created a type of alphabetic script around 653 BCE. It was not as sophisticated as the sign and symbol dominated Hieroglyphics. However, according to Chancellor Williams, Kushite writing featured "23 characters or letters with 17 consonants, 4 vowels and 2 signs of the syllable". Even though Kushite writing was not as complicated to use as Hieroglyphics was, linguists today have been unable to decipher it. The kingdom of Kush reached its height around 100 B.C., but by about 300 A.D., the empire had totally collapsed. Many forces inside and outside of the kingdom contributed to Kush’s fall. Kush suffered a loss of natural resources which led to a loss of trade. This left Kush weak, and vulnerable to attack. The neighboring kingdom of Aksum, which was located southeast of Kush on the Red Sea became more powerful from trade while Kush was becoming weaker. By the 300’s A.D. Kush had a weak military and had lost most of its wealth. Around 350 A.D. the Aksumite King Ezana sent his army to conquer Kush, and destroy its capital at Meroë. Axum took over Kush around 350 A.D. Axums king Ezana led them to the taking over of Kush. They became a strong powerful empire with him as there leader. When they took over kush they became even more powerful. It was a very successful overthrow. Axum was at its highest point in history with there king Enzana. Unlike in Egypt, women were equal contributors to men in the Kushite society. For instance, women worked alongside men in the fields in addition to caring for the home and children. During times of war, women would go to battle alongside men as well.Women in Kush could become priestesses and even Queens. Kush had a king ruling The Aksumites built temples, palaces and tombs for the wealthy ruling classes. Among their most impressive stone buildings were huge monuments, some of which still stand to this day. Known to us as stele, these tall, thin monuments of solid stone were placed to make the tombs of their rulers and are thought to date from about 300 AD. Some of these stelae are among the largest known from the ancient world.