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World War One
Transcript of World War One
The Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
The Triple Entente - Great Britain, France, Russia.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
- June 28th 1914, Sarajevo, Bosnia
- Shot by Gavrilo Princip, a
Bosnian Serb and a member of the
black hand nationalist group.
- The objective was to break off
Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces
to be combined with Yugoslavia.
- Led directly to The Great War.
Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia
- When it was rejected, Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia.
- Created in 1897
- For a possible war Germany could have with Russia and
France. The plan involved Germany making a surprise attack on France.
- On August 1st 1914, Russia declared war on Germany.
- German troops were sent to the eastern front, weakening the army that was to attack France.
- Germany asked permission to go through Belgium.
- Belgium refused but Germans continued to go through.
- Britain sent British Expeditionary Force to Belgium as they upheld the 1839 treaty with Belgium.
- Germans were slowed down.
Battle of Marne
- On the 5th of September 1914, Germany had moved army through Belgium to Marn River in France.
- French recognized a mistake of Germans which was that they exposed their right flank.
- On the outskirts of Paris, French armies assisted with the British Expeditionary Force arranged attacks.
- Germans were put on retreat and stopped from advancing into France along the Marne River.
- On the 12th of September, Germany was defeated.
- The Schlieffen Plan fell.
- It was named "Terrain of death".
- Large trenches where troops were sheltered from the artillery of the enemy.
- Extended nearly 400 miles from the Belgium coast to the Swiss border.
- 6,2500 miles of trenches were dug in 1914.
- Within trenches were fire steps which are firing positions for soldiers and duckboards for secure footing.
- Countries competed to have the largest armies.
- Belief that the greater the military, the greater the nation.
- Alliances were formed to promote peace.
- Small conflicts between two countries (Austra-Hungary and Serbia) made a large number of nations go to war.
- Industrialized countries competed for colonies, resources and wealth. Intensified rivalry between nations.
- Sense of loyalty and pride to one's nation.
The Great war
Franz Ferdinand boarding a vehicle moments before the assassination.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Poison gas was a deadly weapon introduced by the Germans. High concentrations of it could kill or severely injure a person, making it the most feared weapon used in The Great War. There were different kinds of poison gas with different properties such as mustard gas that blistered the skin or tear gas which caused a burning sensation in the eyes.
The machine gun was a weapon with great solidity and reliability as it could be fired for hours continuously. It was a weapon that dominated the battle fields and many armies used them. They accounted for thousands of deaths in World War One. When men went over-the-top in trenches, they stood very little chance of surviving if the enemy used machine guns. It fired ammunition rapidly; it could shoot hundreds of rounds of ammunition a minute.
Submarines, also called the U-boat, were German introduced boats. They were relatively small, generally armed with torpedoes, fitted with deck guns and had 2 large cargo departments. Almost all navies had submarines in their fleets. When WWI began, Germany had 28 submarines that sunk 5 British cruisers during the first 10 weeks.
Tanks were versatile combat vehicles introduced by the British in 1916. Some of them broke down easily but most tanks were poweful vehicles. They were armored machines that had never been used in warfare before and would change warfare forever. Tanks moved on train tracks and coped with navigating trenches which wheeled vehicles could not.
Gas mask from WWI
1839 - Belgium treaty with London to protect neutrality.
1879 - Germany Dual Alliance Treaty formed with Austria-Hungary.
1891 - Franco-Russian Alliance formed.
1904 - France signed treaty of friendship with Britain.
1907 - Russia signed treaty with Britain.
Africa and Asia
- European colonies fought and destroyed each others possessions in Africa.
- Japanese captured Germany's pacific island colonies.
- India provided 1.3 million men to fight alongside british rulers and Mohandas Gandhi supported Indian participation in war.
- Japan declared war on Germany in 1914.
United States Enters War
- Germans intensified submarine warfare and announced unrestricted submarine warfare policy.
- German submarine sunk Lusitania and killed 1,198 and 128 U.S. citizens.
- On April 6th 1917, The United States joined its Allies (France, Britain and Russia).
- They entered because of reasons including the sinking of the Lusitania, economic investments with the British and French and propaganda.
The Zimmerman Telegraph
- From German Foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to the German minister in Mexico, von Eckhardt.
- offering U.S. territory to Mexico in return of joining Germany in war.
- Intercepted by British
- Caused U.S. to enter WW1.
- An effort to take the Dardanelles strait.
- British, Australian, French and New Zealand troops made assaults on the Peninsula.
- Turkish and German troops defended the region.
- Allies gave up the campaign.
- Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians.
- Germans crushed invading Russian army.
- Over 30,000 Russians died.
- Russian army was near collapse as they were short on food, ammunition, clothes, guns and had yet to be industrialized.
- It had only one asset which was its large population.
- Countries were completely devoted to war with resources.
- Governments were dedicated to winning.
- War time governments took control of economy.
- A fixed allowance of a commodity like food.
- Many governments turned to rationing a wide range of goods from butter to shoe leather.
- to persuade and keep up support for war.
- governments sometimes forcibly suppressed antiwar activity.
- Thousands of women started working and taking over mens roles.
- They built tanks and munitions.
- Kept troops supplied with food, clothing and weapons.
Conclusion of war
- Civil unrest in Russia because of food and fuel shortages forces Czar Nicholas to step down.
- A provisional government was established and pledged to continue fighting.
- There were millions of casualties and the Russian army refuses to fight any longer.
- Lenin seized power and ended Russia's involvement in WWI but also offers Germany a truce.
- The treaty of Bret-Litovsk is signed and
ends war between Russia and Germany
The Central Powers Collapse
- Germany sends most troops to western front
- They were less than 40 miles from Paris and had reached the Marne River as they planned a massive attack.
- Their troops were exhausted, there was food shortage and weak military.
- American troops arrived in France and with the allies, launched a counterattack and it was called the Second Battle of the Marne.
- Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down.
- New German government and French commander agree to sign an armistice to stop fighting.
"It was absolute schmozzle it was really a nightmare – fellows being killed all round, wounded all round; not enough ambulance people and not enough ambulance transport to get the fellows from shore. It was an absolute nightmare. I know that night I was drinking from a little creek and I thought to myself, ‘This water tastes funny.’ Then I went up a few yards and here was two dead bodies and the blood was coming down the creek, with the water in the creek.."
This personal account shows that many soldiers lives were sacrificed for no gain during the Gallipoli Campaign. It was violent and described as a nightmare as many soldiers were killed and there was not enough ambulance or transport.
Peace Among Nations
- On November 11th 1918, WW1 came to an end.
-Key leaders including Georges Clemenceau from France, David Lloyd George from Great Britain, Vittario Orlando from Italy and Woodrow Wilson from the United States come together at Versailles for a plan for peace.
- Wilson proposes 14 points for peace like decreasing the military, free trade, end to secret alliances, no colonies and a league of nations.
- Britain and France opposed Wilson's ideas and did not forgive Germany.
- Germany was forced to pay damages to nations.
- After the Versailles treaty, Austra-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire lost lands.
- New countries created in Southeastern Europe.
- There were bitter feelings with Germany, France and Great Britain.
- U.S. did not want to be involved and did not sign the treaty.
- Japan and Italy critisized agreement as they gained less than they wanted.