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Decolonization and the Cold War
Transcript of Decolonization and the Cold War
Definition (post WWII): the rising demand of Asian and African peoples for national self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity.
Imperialism is the action that nations take in
expanding their holdings by conquering foreign
nations and establishing overseas colonies.
Hence, decolonization counteracted
and abolished modern colonization.
This rolling back of Western expansion can
be seen as one of world history's greatest turning points.
The movement among nations worldwide to push for independence was initiated by India.
Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi led this movement in India,
preaching nonviolent non-cooperation with the British.
Gandhi created a new constitution that basically outlined the path of India to becoming an independent nation.
In 1947, two states were created within India--Muslim Pakistan and predominately Hindu India--in order to solve the conflicts between these two religious groups.
India's first step in demanding independence led the way for many countries to follow.
Now jumping over to Asia...
The same nationalism that had characterized India now spread to China, the National People's party (KMT) led the push to unify China and get rid of European holdings.
Civil war erupted, with Stalin granting aid to Mao Zedong and the US to Chiang Kai-shek.
Eventually, after winning the support of peasantry, Mao and the Communists won the war, and forced Chiang and the Nationalists to Taiwan in 1949.
Other Asian nations followed suit after either India or China.
1946-The Philippines achieved independence peacefully from the U.S.
1948-Britain likewise granted
Sri Lanka and Burma independence without bloodshed.
1949-Indonesian nationalists, on the other hand, had to fight the Dutch in order to receive their independence.
1954-More fighting occurred in French Indochina (Vietnam) as France tried to re-establish their control. Even though the French had American aid, they still were not able to defeat the forces of Ho Chi Minh--two independent states were created (N. and S. Vietnam).
Now the Middle East...
1944-Syria and Lebanon get independence from France.
1932-Iraq receives independence from Great Britain.
1947-1948-The British leave Palestine and grant the Jews the land of Israel, inciting violence and terrorism that has continued.
1952-Young Egyptian Army Officer Gamal Abdel Nasser drove out the pro-Western king in Egypt.
1962-Ultimately, after General de Gaulle's acceptance of Algerian self-determination, Algeria became independent.
1957- Britain's colonies in Africa began to gain independence with little to no war.
1958-de Gaulle offered French nations the option of a clean break with France or instant independence as a French commonwealth. All but one of these states choose to continue being connected to France.
Due to the Western European nations' choice to continue associating with their former colonies, they were able to benefit from economic and cultural ties, leading to freer access to raw materials and outlets for profitable investments.
Thus despite the Western Powers' forfeitures, no nation suffered irreplaceable losses.
In fact, it is as a result of these movements for independence that our globe has been politically divided the way we see it today.
Progressing to Africa...
The conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
The Berlin Wall
power and influence
within the world.
The Berlin Wall (built in 1961) divided the East and West parts of Berlin.
The Berlin Wall symbolized the "Iron Curtain".
Economic assistance to all European govts.
It gave economic aid to to rebuild Europe
The plan offered help to countries in need, and showed people how democracy was better than Communism.
The Marshall Plan
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Made up of Canada, United States, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, and Portugal.
The Warsaw Pact
During the time of the Cold War, there was time when there was relaxation.
Both sides felt tremendous burdens to keep up the arms race
Many hoped that this would improve the relationship between the US and the Soviet Union.
The Communist's reaction to NATO,
group of nations to protect each other.
Made up of the alliances between the Soviet Union and eastern Europe.
The UN is the United Nations, which is an international organization whose job is to keep peace throughout the world.
Created in order to replace the weak League of Nations.
It was a set of principles that led the U.S. to take the leadership role for the world.
The goal was to stop the spread of Communism
The UN to becomes involved in the Korean War.
NATO helped prevent the Communist's Iron Curtain from spreading to nations.
The "containment" of the Cold War was said to be born out of the Domino theory.
If one country fell under the influence of communism or control, coutries surrounding it would soon follow.
The termnology was brought up by United States Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles.
The policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of a disaster.
1962-The Cuban Missile Crisis the US and USSR were pushed to the edge of a nuclear war
Soviet Union Leader Nikita Kruschev decided to compromise with JFK.
North Korea invades South Korea.
South Korean and UN Troops are almost pushed off the Peninsula
Gen. MacArthur leads UN Troops counter attack
Push deep into North Korea
Korea divided at the 38th parallel
Soviets controlled the North,
US the south
1946--Sir Winston Churchill delivers his “Iron Curtain” speech at Westminster College in Missouri. This is considered the beginning of the Cold War.
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
Creating a Global Balance of Power
1954-After battle of Dien Bien Phu, the French withdraw from Indochina
Vietnam is divided in 2 parts
1957-USSR launches Sputnik
US is surprised
1958-US launches Explorer I
1961-USSR orbits man around the Earth
Kennedy announces goal of sending a man to the moon by the end of the decade
1961-Bay of Pigs fails to oust Castro
USSR sends tanks, troops, aircraft to support Marxist govt
US supports Afghan rebels to drive Soviets out of region
1991-Soviet Union collapses
Cost of arms race
failure of communist economy
repression of people
power of nationalism
(Ukraine, Baltic Nations, ...stans)
Warsaw Pact nations join NATO
12 Communist nations join EU
China and Vietnam relax command economy allowing limited capitalism
North Korea and Cuba still communist
New World Order
America-Only remaining superpower
Pop culture-movies, music, clothes, fast food
1900-1 country had universal suffrage (New Zealand)
Political boundaries imposed by Europeans had little relationship to African tribal boundaries, so African nationalism was quite limited.
Leaders such as Kwame Nkurmah (Ghana), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), and Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) were all instrumental in independence movements in Africa.