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Exploring the Role of Classroom Debate to Enhance the EFL St

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Dhia El-Hak

on 31 May 2016

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Transcript of Exploring the Role of Classroom Debate to Enhance the EFL St

4. The Research Questions

As a basis to start this study, three questions need to be answered:

1. What are the teachers’ perspectives about teaching OE through the debate technique?

2. What are the difficulties that inhibit students to speak in OE class?

3. Might learning through classroom debate result in better speaking performance?





1. The Background of the Study

David (2003, p. 44) asserts that “classroom debates are exercises designed to allow you to strengthen your skills in the areas of the leadership, interpersonal influence, team building, group problem solving, and oral presentation”.


Ur (1996) states that “of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems institutively the most important” (p. 120).

“Debate is a more formal way of communicating. It builds confidence and self esteem in people.” (Debating SA Incorporated, 2008, p. 1).


welcome
Abstract

The current study aims to explore the role of classroom debate to enhance EFL students’ speaking skill, the case of third year English as Foreign Language learners at Mohamed Lamine Debaghine, Setif 2 University. After a diagnostic test, it has been noticed that students are reluctant to speak in the oral expression sessions. This research is exploratory, descriptive. That is, it aims at describing two variables: classroom debate as an independent variable and its role in improving students’ speaking skill as the dependent variable. The data are gathered through mixed method research of both quantitative and qualitative methods, that have been carried through two data collection means: The former is a questionnaire which has been designed for 49 out of 247 3rd year LMD students and the latter is an interview for 7 out of 15 oral expression teachersin addition to another questionnaire with the same participants, in order to confirm the interview’s results. After the analyses, it has been deduced that teachers agree that classroom debate is a motivated technique in oral expression class, and the speaking skill can be improved by implementing the debate learning technique. This mainly contributes to promote the essential speaking sub skills needed for communicating English. Although, the conducted research has faced a number of limitations, but the findings reveal interesting implications particularly, if the debate technique has been well organized by the teachers. In order, to test the applicability of the findings to a larger population, future researches should be done experimentally.
5.5. Data Analysis Tool

In this study, the data that have been collected quantitatively through the two questionnaires have been analyzed using a Software Package for Statistical Science (SPSS) .

6. Limitations


First Deficiency is the time constraints.


Second Deficiency in that research, the data has been collected only through a mixed method approach since the tools that have been used are questionnaire and unstructured interview.


Third Deficiency the population compromise only third year English students and OE teachers in the English department of Mohamed Lamine Debaghine, Setif 2 University.


Fourth Deficiency the study has been limited in terms of two main variables.


Chapter One: Classroom Debate
Introduction
1.1. Definition of Debate
1.2. The Parts of Classroom Debate
1.3. Types of Classroom Debate
1.3.1. Teacher-Student Debate
1.3.2. Student-Student Debate
1.3.3. Group’s Debate
1.3.4. Round Table Debate
1.4. Steps for Classroom Debate
1.5. Rules of Classroom Debate
1.6. The Benefits of Classroom Debate
1.6.1. Mastering the Content and Active Engagement
1.6.2. Developing Critical Thinking Skills
1.6.3. Oral Communication Skills
1.7. Strengths and Weaknesses of Debate in the Speaking Classroom
1.8. Classroom Debate to Improve the Speaking Skill
Conclusion


4.2.1. Teachers’ Perspective about Teaching OE through the Debate Technique

The findings related to this question revealed that OE teachers who have interviewed have positive perception concerning the use of debate technique.


4.2.2. The Difficulties that Inhibit Students to Speak in OE Class

The results revealed that speaking skill is the most difficult language skill for third year students. . Moreover, students face two major difficulties in English speaking; the linguistic problems and the psychological ones.

4.2.3. Learning through Classroom Debate Result in better Speaking Performance

The results have revealed that third year students and their OE teachers at Mohamed Lamine Debaghine, Setif 2 University are highly satisfied about the role of the debate technique in OE class,.



General Conclusion
The study is exploratory; it has been conducted to investigate the role of classroom debate as a technique in OE sessions to enhance students’ speaking skill. The current study has addressed three major research questions.
RQ1:
What are the teachers’ perspectives about teaching OE through classroom debate?
RQ2:
What are the difficulties that inhibit students to speak in OE class?
RQ3:
Might learning through classroom debate result in better speaking performance? The mixed methods research has combined the quantitative and qualitative methods together. The former is a questionnaire has been designed for 49 out of 247 3rd year LMD students and the latter is an interview for 7 out of 15 OE teachers, in addition to another questionnaire with the same participants, in order to confirm the interview’s results. The analyses of quantitative and qualitative data enable us to come up with three essential findings. The first one, a considerable number of third years LMD students face two kinds of difficulties in OE the linguistic problems and the psychological ones.







Domaine: Lettres et Langues Etrangères.
Filière: Langue Anglaise.
Spécialité: Sciences du Langage et Didactique.











A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Language Sciences and Didactics

Board of examiners:

Candidate:

• Mr. Seghir BOUKADI
President
Miss: Ghania DEROUICHE
• Mrs. Radhia MEBARKIA
Supervisor
• Mrs. Ghozlene BELALA
Examiner


Academic year 2015/2016
General Introduction
1. The Background of the Study
2. Statement of the Problem
3. Aim of the Study
4. Research Questions
5. Research Methodology
5.1. Type of the Research
5.2. Choice of the Method
5.3. Population and Sampling
5.4. Data Collection Means
5.5. Data Analysis Tool
6. Limitations
7. Delimitations
8. The Significance of the Study



Chapter Three: Research Methodology

Introduction
3.1. Research Methodology
3.2. Research Design
3.3. Exploratory Research
3.4. Descriptive Research
3.5. Case Study Design
3.6. Mixed Method Research
3.7. Research Methods
3.7.1. Qualitative Method
3.7.2. Quantitative Method
3.8. Population of the Study
3.9. Sampling of the Research
3.10. Data Collection Means
3.10.1. Qualitative
3.10.1.1. Teachers’ Interview
3.10.2. Quantitative
3.10.2.1. Teachers’ Questionnaire
3.10.2.2. Students’ Questionnaire
3.10.2.3. Pilot Study
3.10.2.3.1. Pilot Test
3.11. Data Analysis Tool
3.12. Limitations
3.13. Delimitations
3.14. Issues of Trustworthiness and Ethical Consideration
Conclusion

5.2. Choice of the Method

In this study, a mixed method approach has been employed by combining qualitative and quantitative research methods, since the tools that have been used are unstructured interview and questionnaires .

5.3. Population and Sampling

In the present study, the target population is third year LMD students at Mohamed Lamine Debaghine, Setif 2 University. The sample has been selected randomly from the entire population that is 49 out of 247 .

5.4. Data Collection Means

Two data collection instruments have been used to gather data in this study questionnaire and an unstructured interview .
7. Delimitations

The essential focus of the present study has been limited in terms of :


Variables
Mixed method approach


Chapter Two: Speaking Skill
Introduction
2.1. Definition of the Speaking Skill
2.2. Speaking as a Meaningful Interaction
2.3. Speaking Vs Listening
2.4. Speaking Sub Skills
2.4.1. Pronunciation
2.4.2. Vocabulary
2.4.3. Grammar
2.4.4. Accuracy Vs Fluency
2.5. Teaching Speaking
2.6. Teacher’s Roles in the Speaking Activity
2.7. Characteristic of the Successful Speaking Activity
2.8. Techniques in Teaching Speaking
2.9. Problems in Speaking Activity
2.10. Solutions for the Problems of Speaking Activity
2.11. Assessing Student Performance
2.11.1. Self Evaluation
2.11.2. Peer Evaluation
2.11.3. Teacher Evaluation
2.12. The Importance of Speaking
Conclusion
4.3. Implications and Recommendations for Practice


Teachers are highly recommended to plan for pure OE sessions meaning students are expected to interact and produce orally, otherwise they get lost if the task is designed orally and students are asked to answer in the written form.

Teachers should reduce their amount of talking and replaced by students’ talk, in order to get enough opportunities to express their ideas and themselves in English.

Teachers need to vary in the activities performed in the class and focusing most on the types that are motivated and encourage active engagement.

It is necessary for teachers to listen carefully to their students speeches without ignoring them in case of making mistakes but giving positive feedback for saving the continuation of the presentation.
• Students should have the aptitude to learn and not to wait until the teachers oblige them to.


The second one, from the students’ and their OE teachers point of views the debate learning technique might be the most popular technique among the others. The third one, OE teachers confirm the students’ responses in that point and they also agree that classroom debate might be suitable learning technique for students to speak English freely and competently. The main suggestion for further studies, the conducted study is exploratory; therefore to prove the current findings, experimental future research based on the current results might be significant.
2. The Statement of the Problem

In Mohammed Lamine Debaghine, Setif 2University, after conducting a pre questionnaire with 10 third year License, Master, Doctorate (LMD) students the researcher has noticed that students in OE sessions are reluctant to speak English inside the classroom due to their limitations in learning the components of speaking .



3. The Purpose of the Study

The main aim of the present study is to explore the role of classroom debate as a learning technique in relation to student’s speaking skill performance.
5. Research Methodology Design

Research methodology is a strategy of enquiry, which moves from the underlying assumptions to research design and data collection (Myers, 2009).

5.1. Research Type

The research is exploratory, because the present study aims to explore and gain insight about the use of debate technique as an independent variable to enhance students’ speaking skill as the dependent one.
7. The Significance of the Study

The importance of this study is to highlight the role of the debate learning technique in the language classroom .
It is beneficial for both teachers and students, since it is an attempt to give clear idea about how the debate has been organized inside the classroom .
It is important for other researchers who are interested in this topic and try to test the effectiveness of the debate technique to improve students’ speaking skill.
Chapter Four: Data Analyses and Interpretations

Introduction
4.1. Data Descriptive Analyses
4.1.1. Teachers’ Interview Analysis
4.1.2. Teachers’ Questionnaire Analysis
4.1.3. Students’ Questionnaires Analysis
4.2. Findings’ Interpretations
4.2.1. Teachers’ Interview Interpretations
4.2.1.1. Teachers’ Perspectives about Teaching OE through the Debate Technique
4.2.2. Teachers’ Questionnaire Interpretations
4.2.2.1. Learning through Classroom Debate Result in better Speaking Performance
4.2.3. Students’ Questionnaires Interpretations
4.2.2.1. The Difficulties that Inhibit Students to Speak in OE Class
4.2.2.2. Learning through Classroom Debate Result in better Speaking Performance
4.3. Implications and Recommendations for Practice
4.4. Suggestions for Further Research
Conclusion

4.4. Suggestions for Further Research

• This research is carried out only with third year English students in the English department of Mohamed Lamine Debaghine, Setif 2University. It can be suggested that future research should consider participants from other English departments of other universities.

• Future research studies can apply more than two data collection means, in order to collect more valid and reliable data.

• The conducted study is exploratory; therefore to prove the current findings, experimental future research based on the current results might be
significant.
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