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The Industrial Revolution
Transcript of The Industrial Revolution
1730 - 1830
The Industrial Revolution
• is called a revolution because it changed society rapidly and significantly.
• brought a shift from agriculture to modern industry.
New World crops like potato, corn and other high-yield crops introduced to Europe
Crop rotation began
“Enclosure” allowed for private farming
New technologies increased efficiency and productivity of farms
Britain takes the lead
Land and Resources
Regions of Spread
Began in Britain
Then to Japan
And the United States
1730 – 1770 – inventions that made work in textiles easier – relied on water power
1770 – 1792 – new inventions improved upon, mainly for the cotton industry, BUT needed more powerful energy source, led to
1792 – 1830 – steam power – more efficient
1830 – transportation advances, locomotives
Spinning Jenny – James Hargreaves
Flying Shuttle John Kay 1733
Eli Whitney – cotton gin - 1793
• Almost half of the population was free to leave the farms and move to cities
• 1800 – only 20 cities in Europe with pop. of >100,000
• 1900 – 150 cities had populations of this size, London had 5 million people
• Ireland is the exception – 1840s
The effects were . . .
• economic activities changed from agriculture to manufacturing
• production shifted from the home to factories
• large populations moved to the cities
• End of slavery in industrial areas, why?
Areas of Change
power to run the machines – what kind of power?
Need for resources
Where did the European nations go for the increasing need for resources?
They have lost their colonies.
Their own resources and finances start to become insufficient for their needs.
Famous Inventors of the Era
Guglielmo Marconi – radio – 1890s
Famous Inventors of the Era con’t
Alexander Graham Bell
George Washington Carver
Isaac M. Singer
Wilbur and Orville Wright
• Pasteurization - The process of pasteurization was created by Louis Pasteur. Pasteur's aim was to destroy bacteria, molds, spores etc. He discovered that the destruction of bacteria can be performed by exposing them to certain minimum temperature for certain minimum time and the higher the temperature the shorter the exposure time required.
• What does the mean for the general
Condition of Workers
• With interchangeable parts and assembly lines came social costs, particularly for women and children:
• 16-hour days
• Underpaid for work
• Dangerous work with no insurance or protection
• Children as young as six went to work – Why?
• Women worked in factories and at home
• HOW DOES GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY RESPOND TO THESE ILLS.
New York City, March 25, 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
On the other side of the coin
• Karl Marx – pointed out that workers had genuine opportunities but were being exploited as a consequence of capitalism
• The Communist Manifesto – 1848 – written with Friedrich Engels – working class would revolt and take control of production – example the Luddities in England (early 1880s)
Slave Trade outlawed – 1807
Slavery outlawed in England – 1833
What replaces this labor force?
Factory Act of 1833
British parliament passed
Limiting work hours
Restricting children from working in factories
Safer, cleaner factories
Mines Act of 1842
Ten Hours Act of 1847 –women and children under 18
Reactions - Realism
His REALISTIC novels focused on lower classes of the IR and showcased the brutal life of the urban poor.
Reaction to the Romanticism of the 18th century
French Realist painter who focused on everyday life.
New Social Pyramid
• New Aristocrats – rich based on industrial success
• Middle class – managers, accountants, ministers, lawyers, doctors, skill professionals
• Working class – HUGE CLASS – factory workers and peasant farmers
Rise of Industrial Class
• Adam Smith – The Wealth of Nations (1776) – free-market system (capitalism) meets the needs and desires of individuals and nations.
• Laissez-faire capitalism
• What is the effect of these economic ideas?
• Encouraged the rise of private investment – British East India Company
• What is the capital and resources going to come from for this industrial rise?
• Natural Selection – Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution, based on the survival and replication of the fittest and most adaptable genes, through competition over limited natural resources.
• Influences later social ideas through Social Darwinism.
• Darwin himself recommended that his views based on evolution be applied to ethical understanding and social sciences. Darwin said the following to H. Thiel in a letter in 1869:
You will readily believe how much interested I am in observing that you apply to moral and social questions analogous views to those which I have used in regard to the modification of species. It did not occur to me formerly that my views could be extended to such widely different, and most important, subjects.
With the struggle in nature also being accepted as being in human nature, conflicts in the name of racism, Fascism, Communism, and imperialism, and the efforts of strong peoples to crush peoples they perceived as weaker were by now clothed in a scientific façade. It was now impossible to reproach or obstruct those who carried out barbarous massacres, treated human beings like animals, turned peoples against each other, who despised others on account of their race, who closed down small businesses in the name of competition, and who refused to extend the hand of help to the poor. Because they were doing this in accordance with a "scientific" natural law.
This new scientific account came to be known as "Social Darwinism."
The Disasters Darwinism Brought To Humanity by Yahya
Early Labor movements
Early Factory Reforms
• Jeremy Bentham - founder of Utilitarianism -- simply put, the philosophy that a moral act is one which produces the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. He outlined this theory in his 1789 work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. His outlook made him a vocal critic of many legal and political institutions, and he was considered quite radical for his day.
• goal of actions should be to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number
• the state can be “ominicompetent”-fit to undertake anything for the general welfare
• John Stuart Mill and Charles Dickens
• positive remedies to modify laissez faire
• workers should be allowed to unionize
• form cooperatives
• state should protect laboring women and children
• universal suffrage
• public education--equally open to men and women
• “On Liberty” classic statement on the liberty of the individual
Early Labor Movements
• Strikes were illegal, but there were many
• wanted higher wages and better working conditions
• Europeans and Americans regarded unions as illegal
• 1870 Parliament passed a law that permitted strikes
• collective bargaining accepted in 20th century
• Examples from Britain
• 1819 prohibited employment of children under 9 in cotton mills
• couldn’t work more than 12 hours a day
• 1832 women prohibited from working in mines
• 1847 Ten Hours act--women and children in mills
Women were seen as second class citizens and incapable of the mental capacity to vote
against women voting, worried they would vote for liberal or labour.
worried if property owning women were given the vote then they would vote conservative
started in 1900, were in favour of female suffrage but wanted all working class women to get the vote first.
From 1850 women gained educational, civil and political equality.
National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies Established 1897 by Millicent Fawcett (England).
Methods – peaceful protest, petitions to government and propaganda – “The Suffragist.”
The Suffragettes – Women’s Social and Political Union – 1903 founded by Emmeline Pankhurst. “Deeds not words.” More militant actions.
Why did women not have the vote by 1914?
Attitude of public and press.
Government Attitudes and Actions.
Actions of the suffragists.
Actions of the Suffragettes.
Splits in the suffrage movement.
major means of production and distribution are communally owned
Kinds of socialism
• Convert by example--”persuasion and demonstration”
• model communities
• Robert Owen - The founder of socialism in England. Was born of poor parents in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, 1771. In 1800 he became owner of the New Lanark Cotton Factory, where he proceeded to put in practice his theories of a new system of society. He afterwards made unsuccessful attempts to establish communistic settlements at New Harmony in America (1825), and Harmony Hall in Hampshire (1844). To his efforts may be traced the first factory legislation, the cooperative movement, and the establishment of infant schools. Died 1858
• Peaceful conversion
• democratic parties
• major means of production and distribution owned by the state
• welfare state
• graduated taxes
• economic determinism
• class struggle
• inevitability of communism
• dictatorship of the proletariat
• classless society
• state will “wither away”
• “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.”
• Communist Manifesto
So where do the capitalist nations of the West go to feed the beast of the Industrial Revolution?
That’s another lecture!