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History of World Architecture

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Dipak Gupta

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of History of World Architecture

Indian Architecture
Japanese Architecture
African Architecture
Southeast Asian Architecture
Renaissance Architecture
Greek & Roman Architecture
Villa Medici Careggi 1430s Michelozzo
Palladio Villa Rotunda 1569
Katsura Villa 1620
Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra, India c500CE
Kailash Temple of Ellora
8th Cent BC
Ajanta Padmapani
Maharashtra, India c500CE
Ajanta Vajrapani Maharashtra, India c500CE
Visvanatha Temple
Khajuraho, India 1002 CE
Adalaj Stepwell, Ahmedabad, 1499
Vav c1175 CE Kapadwani Kheda Gujarat
Angkor Wat, Khmer Empire, early 1200s
Angkor Thom, Khmer Empire, early 1200s
Iktinos & Kallikrates, Parthenon (on the Acropolis), 440 BC
The Pantheon, Rome, rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian circa 126 AD
the Classical Orders
Piranesi Interior view of the Pantheon
Piazza della Santissima Annunziata with SS Annunziata [center], Ospedale degli Innocenti [right], and Portico of the Servite Confraternity [left]Giovanni Battista Caccini; Filippo Brunelleschi; Antonio da Sangallo the Elder
San Andrea
Mantua facade 1470
"The three main discoveries in the Renaissance which impacted art were the discovery of scientific perspective, the knowledge of anatomy, the knowledge of classical forms of buildings."

Gombrich, E.H. The Story of Art
London: Phaidon Publishers Inc., 1950, p.341
Bramante, Donato, Tempietto 1510 drawing by Barocci
Bramante, Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome c.1502-10
I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura
(The Four Books of Architecture) 1570
Florence Cathedral begun 1296 (dome by Brunelleschi added 1420-1436)
Florence, view of center from Piazza della Signoria to the Duomo
Palladio Villa Rotunda Section drawing by Scamozzi 1778
Architectural Perspective Ideal City Francesco di Giogio
Nautilus shell geometry
Venice Canaletto Piazza San Marco 1720
Palladio’s Villa Rotunda

a working farm and intellectual retreat

a geometric and centralized plan

a clear overall form and relationship between the parts

an intellectual building with historical allusions

a building that reflects a new social order

a relationship to urban Renaissance culture
“Here they needed houses for their families, retainers, and animals radically different from those of the medieval country castle. To design them, they needed an architect who had come to maturity in the 1530s, who would survive until the decline of the building bubble in the deflationary period around 1570, who would possess a skill rare in the Renaissance, in designing functional and utilitarian structures for which there was no tradition in earlier architecture, but who would command the classical heritage so as to lend an air of cultivated grandeur to the country estate of gentlemen who still thought like city dwellers, and finally, who would know how to build cheaply as well as grandly. That was Palladio: ‘Had he not existed he would have to have been invented’.
lantern slide taken c1914
In a sense, he was invented. If the quasi-country gentleman, Trissino, had not drawn him out of the stoneyard and at the dawn of the agricultural revolution, he would not have been Palladio, much less an architect. The times made the man. Luckily, the man made the genius.”
Palladio, James S Ackerman, p53 (Penguin Books 1966)
Junzo Sakakaura and Le Corbusier at the Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto 1955
To the Greeks and Romans of classical antiquity, the Orders represented in their proportioning of elements the perfect expression of beauty and harmony… the intention was to ensure that all of the parts of any one building were proportionate and in harmony with one another.

Francis Ching Architecture – Form, Space, and Order
the Canon
Lancelotti Discobolus, Roman c 140 CE
Maiden Gathering Flowers, 1st Cent AD
Pompeii House of the Silver Wedding 300bc
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (spearbearer)
Roman Marble copy after Greek Original c400BCE
Friday Mosque in Djenne, Mali
House of the Chief in Djenne, Mali
Mosque, Bore, Mali
Mother of the chief outside her living quarters, Burkina Faso
Compound of the chief, Burkina Faso
Ginna House, Ogol Ley, Sanga, Mali
Mosque, Kossa, Niger
Mosque, Sanam, Niger
Mosque, Sanam, Niger
Dogon Village, Mali
Nando Mosque, Mali
Dogon People
Dogon Tellem
House, Djenne, Mali
Kandariya Mahadeva Temple
Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, detail
Vikia Vav c1175 CE Ghumali Jamnagar Gujarat
Ajanta Caves
Wall fresco from Cave 1
c2nd cent BCE to c480 or 650 CE
Ayutthaya (Siam, now Thailand)
Angkor Thom, tree roots
Angkor Wat, Khmer Empire, early 1200s
Borobudur, Java, 8th - 9th century, andesite (volcanic stone) aerial
The Seokguram Buddha, Korea, prior to its restoration, c751 CE
Korean Architecture
Yamantaka-Vajrabhairava with Imperial Portraits, China, ca. 1330-32, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368), Silk and metallic thread tapestry (kesi)
Plan of Boffrand’s Hôtel Amelot
on Rue Saint Dominique, Paris
Hôtel Amelot de Gourmay, Germain Boffrand, 1710-12
French Hôtels
Full transcript