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Joseph Mele

on 25 June 2015

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Cooking: To heat food for desirable changes, to prepare food so it is edible

Heat must be transferred from: The heat source to and through the food

Conduction: Heat through direct contact

Conduction occurs in two ways:

From Heat source to the pan to the oil to the food,

and within food –

Heat on outside of food transferred through from one part of an item to another

Rates of conduction (fastest to slowest):
Copper, Aluminum, Stainless, Glass

Convection: Hot air moved – occurs when heat is spread by the movement of air, steam, or a liquid, including hot fat

Two types of convection:
Air within enclosed space – natural over has heated air which rises, cools and is heated by an element or gas.

Mechanical – a fan in the oven moving the hot air – a convection oven pushes hot air around food.

Radiation: Heat from one direction – occurs when energy is transferred by waves from the source to the food, also called radiant heat

Two types of radiation used in cooking:

Infrared – broiler / heat from one direction
Microwave – uses radiant waves to agitate water molecules in food. Friction generates heat

Conduction: Hot Plate, Pan Roasting
Convection: Oven, Convection Oven
Radiation: Microwave, Broiler

Heat affects the: Flavor, color, texture and moisture of food
The cooking of proteins is called: Coagulation

Description: As temperature increases, proteins shrink,
become firmer and lose moisture; different meat proteins
contain connective tissue,
which can be softened/dissolved with slow moist cooking.

Example: Cooking a chicken – starts out pink and tough, loses moisture
Temperature: 160°-185°
Ingredients that affect this process: acids speed coagulation and dissolve tissue
Overcooking: Drying and toughening (shrinks protein strands)

Exceptions: Beans, Nuts, Grains
The cooking of starches is called: Gelatinization
Description: Starches absorb water and swell using heat.
Example: Cooking rice, corn starch, flour in cakes

Temperature: 150°-212°
Ingredients that affect this process: Acids inhibit gelatinization
Overcooking: Stickiness and drying out, as well as breaking down

The cooking of sugars is called: Caramelization
Description: As sugars cook, they turn brown and get sweeter, and
then turn bitter as they burn.
Example: Browning an onion until it is sweet and golden-brown
Temperature: 338°
Ingredients that affect this process: Water
Overcooking: Causes bitterness

Description of fats: Energy source for plants and animals in which they are stored; smooth greasy substances which don’t dissolve in water
An oil is defined as: Fats that remain liquid at room temperature.
When fats are heated they: Melt, soften, liquefy, don’t evaporate
Smoke point is defined as: The point at which fats deteriorate rapidly
Flash point is defined as: When oil bursts into flames
The temperature at which a fat reaches its smoke point is dependent upon the: Stability of the fat
Overcooking fats results: Rapid deterioration, smoking, flames, over-browning, burning

When water heated it: Boils then evaporates, turns into gas or steam, ‘reduces’
When too much water is removed from a product the end product is: Dry
When is water loss desirable? For sauces that need to be thick. Reduction concentrates flavors and thickens.
How do you control water loss? Use a lid, cook quickly and cook fast
Description of fiber: Cellulose and pectin. Fiber is the name for a group of complex substances that give structure and firmness to plants.
How does the cooking process affect fiber? Softens it, breaks it down
How does the addition of other ingredients affect fiber during the cooking process?
Sugar makes it more firm, so does acid. They lengthen cooking time in beans. Alkalis make fiber softer, vegetables will become mush.
How does cooking affect the following other food components?
Pigments: Make some brighter and some duller. They can be leached out and destroyed by heat, acids, and alkalis.
Flavor Components: Can remove bitterness. Can also be destroyed by overcooking

Vitamins & Minerals: Loss in most cases, sometimes new nutrients are activated
How can loss be minimized during the cooking process? Select the cooking process that best preserves a food’s nutrients and appearance

Maillard Reaction: Named for the French scientist that discovered it, this is the process of sugar breaking down in the presence of protein. This reaction is responsible for darkening and complex, meaty and baked flavors.
Cooking times are dependent of three factors

Temperature: The temperature of the air in the oven, the fat in the fryer, surface of griddle or heat often liquid in which a food is cooking

Speed of heat transfer: Air is a poor conductor of heat, whereas a jet of steam is very efficient.

Size, temperature and characteristics of the item: A 2lb. roast will cook faster than a 10lb. roast. A room temperature steak will cook faster than a refrigerated one. The amount of connective tissue in an item affects this as well.

“Done” products show:
Desired temperature,
desired color,
desired texture
and desired taste
When items continue cooking after being removed from heat: Carry-over cooking (5° for small items, 10-15° for average-size items, 25° for large items)
Cooking media: What foods are cooked in, the substance that transfers the heat to the food
The four cooking media: Air, fat, water / steam and metal
Dry-heat: Methods by which heat is conducted without moisture;
either by hot air, hot metal, radiation or hot fat. Dry-heat foods need to be naturally tender.

Subcategories of dry-heat: With fat and without fat

Moist-heat: Methods by which heat is conducted to the food by water or steam

Combination: Use of both dry and moist-heat. Braising and stewing – sear first, add liquid after.

Cooking method is based on:
Flavor and Appearance desired by browning
Flavor imparted by fats
Firmness or delicacy of the product
Type of food to cook
Dry Heat Moist Heat Combination
Method: Media Method Media Method Media

Grilling Conduction Boil Water Braise Dry/Liquid
Baking Conduction Poach Water Stew Dry/Liquid
Roasting Convection Steam Water Fricasse Dry/Liquid
Broiling Radiation Simmer Water
Smoking Convection
Sauté Conduction
Pan Fry Conduction
Deep Fry Concvetion
Microwave Radiation

Stock: A clear, flavored liquid, derived from the simmering of bones
with aromatic vegetables, spices, and herbs
The French word for stock is: Fond, meaning foundation
This means: Stock is the foundation of good cooking (good techniques and good ingredients)
The four main ingredients of stock: Water, bones, mirepoix, sachet / seasonings
Basic stock ration: 60% water, 30% bones, 10% mirepoix
How are stocks used in the kitchen?
Sauce and soup making
Cooking of grains
Poaching of foods
Braising of dishes
What are the advantages of making stocks on property? Better taste / quality, more richness, utilizing byproduct
The disadvantages? Time consuming, cost / labor, takes up space / storage
Classifications of stocks: white stock, brown stock – caramelization and pincé (tomato product)
Close relatives of stocks: Vegetable stock / Court bouillon, Fumet (rich fish stock)

Function of Bones: provides richness, color, flavor
A stock’s “body” comes from Collagen which is derived from Cartilage from Gelatin / protein and connective tissue
Types of bones that contain a lot of cartilage include: Back, neck, shank, joints – young animal
Specifications for the various types of bones
Beef and Veal bones: Fresh or frozen – cut 3-4 inches, shank bones
Chicken bones: Wings are best, but are expensive, necks and backs are most often used
Fish bones: Lean, white, small fish
Other bones: Pork, venison, duck, turkey, etc.

Mirepoix: A mixture of coarsely chopped onion, carrots, and celery used to flavor stocks, stews and other foods
Basic Recipe: 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery
Cutting mirepoix
To peel or not to peel? Don’t use onion skin.
Celery and Carrots don’t need to be peeled
Uniformity: Similar size, but doesn’t have to be exact
Size of cuts: Cooking time determines – bigger cuts for longer times
White Mirepoix: replacing carrots with parsnips and adding mushrooms and leeks, used for making white stock or fish stock

What is a matignon? A mirepoix that is cut into uniform pieces with the addition of bacon or ham, served with the soup, or braise that it was cooked in.

What is the Holy Trinity of Cajun and Creole cuisine? Chopped celery, bell pepper and onion
The liquid most often used is: Water
The liquid used might also be:
Which is: Rewetting of the bones – reusing bones to make another stock
Other liquids include: Wine, tomato juice
The most important factor concerning the liquid is that is must be: Cold

Flavoring, Seasonings & Spices
Commonly used seasonings used for stock include: Peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, parsley stems, cloves and sometimes garlic

Often seasonings for stock are added via:
Sachet d’épices – peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, parsley stems, tied in cheesecloth
Bouquet garni – Fresh herbs, Carrots, Celery, Leeks, Fresh thyme, Parsley stems and bay leaves tied in a bundle

Guidelines for seasoning
Amount of seasoning: Enough to enhance, not overpower
When to add: After it comes to a boil, and after 1st depouillage skimming

What about salt? Stocks are used for many applications, season when needed
Other flavoring agents used in stocks include: Garlic, Tomato

What NOT to add: Red peppers, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Too much of any one ingredient, do not clean out refrigerators to add to stock A quality stock must start with quality: ingredients
Principles of Stock Making
Start Properly: Cut, rinse, or blanch bones (blanching can reduce flavor,
but produces a clearer stock), Cover with cold water

Simmer Gently: Simmer and depouillage frequently (skim the impurities off top), Add more mirepoix and seasonings
-Simmer 4-5 hours (chicken)
-Simmer 6-8 hours (veal)
-Simmer 30-45 minutes (fish)

Skim Frequently: Depouillage / degrease / remove impurities, Makes stocks clear,
Removes bitter taste

Strain Quickly: Strain through 2-3 layers of rinsed cheesecloth in a metal container, Do not use a plastic bucket

Cool Quickly: “Venting,” Ice bath, stirring frequently, Cool to 70° within 2 hours and down to 40° within 4 hours

Store Properly: Make sure it’s stored above raw foods, Handle carefully, use clean ladles, Labeled, dated, and rotated. Up to 1 week

White Stock
Quality indicators: Richness, flavor, clarity, not fatty
Basic Recipe: Bones, cold water, mirepoix, sachet
To Blanch or not to blanch:

PRO – very clear stock results
CON – flavor lost in final product

Procedure: Rinse bones, remove excess fat
-Cover bones with cold water
-Simmer, depouillage, add mirepoix and sachet
-Simmer 4-5 hours, depouillage frequently
-Strain through cheesecloth / ice cloth

Variations: Chicken stock, white veal stock
Uses: Many!
Brown Stock
Quality indicators: Richness, flavor, clarity, nice brown color, not fatty
Basic Recipe: Beef or veal bones, cold water,
mirepoix, tomato paste, sachet
-Do not rinse bones, they will never caramelize
-Caramelize bones in oven, pince
-Caramelize mirepoix, deglaze pan with cold water
-Cover bones with cold water
-Simmer, depouillage, add mirepoix and sachet
-Simmer 6-8 hours, depouillage frequently
-Strain and ice bath
Variations: Brown chicken stock, brown veal stock, beef stock
Uses: Brown sauces, beef soups, braising liquid
Fish Fumet
Fish Stock versus Fish Fumet: Fish Fumet is more strongly flavored and aromatic and contains acidic ingredients like white wine / lemon
Quality indicators: Richness, flavor, clarity
Basic Recipe: Fish bones / shellfish bones, cold water, mirepoix, white wine, lemon juice, sachet
-Remove guts and gills, rinse lean fish bones
-Sweat mirepoix
-Add bones and white wine, cover 5 minutes
-Uncover, add cold water, sachet
-Simmer 30-45 minutes, depouillage frequently
-Strain – ice bath
Variations: Shell fish bones
Uses: Soups, poaching, sauces, cuisson

Stock Relatives
Glace / Glaze: Dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock.
Reduced by ¾ or to a syrup
Similarities to a Stock: Same flavors, intensified
Differences from a Stock: Thicker consistence, stronger flavor
Basic Ingredients: Stock – various types
Basic Method: Simmer stock and reduce to a glaze
Uses / Variations: Glace de Viande, Glace de Volaille, Glace de Poisson

Broth: Thin, flavorful clear liquid
Similarities to a Stock: Flavorful liquid, versatile
Differences from a Stock: No bones involved, a broth can be eaten as is
Basic Ingredients: Meat and/or vegetables and water
Basic Method: Simmer meat and/or veggies
Uses / Variations: Many - same as stock and also can be served / soup

Court Bouillon (“Short Broth”): A flavored liquid. Usually water and wine or vinegar in which vegetables and seasonings have been added to impart flavor and aroma
Similarities to a Stock: Flavored liquid
Differences from a Stock: Much more flavor from salt and acid
Basic Ingredients: Water and wine / vinegar, vegetables, and seasoning
Basic Method: Simmer short time (“short broth”), Strain
Uses / Variations: Poaching liquid

Essence: A sauce made from concentrated vegetable juice, extracting oil from herbs and spices / fish
Similarities to a Stock:
Differences from a Stock: Strongly flavored
Basic Ingredients: Extracts of spices, herbs, and fish
Basic Method: Squeeze, extract
Uses / Variations: Flavor – food items, mostly baked goods (e.g. Vanilla essence)

Would you consider stock to be a healthy ingredient? Why or why not? Instructor –led discussion
Stock is cloudy
Boiled for a while
Started with hot water
Bones not rinsed
Overcooking (calcium cooks)
Stirred while cooking
Clarification Method

Stock lacks body
Not right kind of bones
Not enough bones
Not cooked long enough
Not follow procedure
Strain and reduce

Stock lacks flavor
Poor quality bones
Not enough mirepoix
Water to bone ratio was off
Add base

Stock lacks color
Didn’t caramelize properly.
Add gravymaster, etc
Onion brulé

Convenience Bases: Concentrated convenience products
Advantages: Less time / space needed, Cheaper, Richness
Disadvantages: Overall quality, Can be consistent / salty, Control / saltiness
What determines the quality of a base?
Main ingredient should be meat or meat byproduct
How are bases used best? If stock is not available

Roasting and Baking
Definition: Dry-heat convection. To cook by surrounding with hot, dry air.
Roast: Usually applies to meats, vegetables.
Done uncovered in an oven or on a spit over an open fire

Bake: Usually applies to breads, cakes, pastries; a more general term but no difference in technique. The terms are often used interchangeably.
Types of items: Large pieces of meat – prime rib, roast beef, tender, high fat, vegetables.

Seasoning: Depends on size of item. Large products early, salt and pepper rub into meat.

Trussing or Tying: Holds shape, holds in stuffing, even cooking, retains moisture.
Tying is for meat, trussing is for poultry.

When to sear: To hold moisture – usually small meat cuts. When a well browned crust is desired or cooking time is not long enough to caramelize exterior.

Basting: Retain moisture, bronzing, flavor. For poultry. Not necessary with fatty items like duck or goose

Larding and Barding: Putting fat around the outside. Larding – injecting with fat.
Used for lean meats that are not well marbled

Using a rack: Especially important for meats, keeps food out of its juices. Better circulation, more even cooking

High temperature vs. low temperature: Low temperature – less shrinkage. General rule of thumb – large items, low heat; small roasts, high heat

Roasting and Baking
Basic Roasting Procedure for Meats & Poultry:
Collect equipment and food supplies.
Use pans with low sides that just fit the roast. Pre-heat oven.

1) Prepare and trim meats for roasting. Heavy fats should be trimmed to ½”
2) Season the meat several hours or even the day before.
3) Place meat fat-side up on a rack, bones, or mirepoix.
4) Do not cover or add liquid.

5) Roast to within 5°-15° of doneness to allow for carryover cooking.
6) Add mirepoix during halfway point for long-cooking roasts.
7) Allow roast to rest 15-30 min so juices reabsorb.
8) Prepare gravy or Au Jus.
9) Slice as close to serving time as possible.

Basic Roasting Procedure for Vegetables:
1) Collect all equipment and food.
2) Prepare vegetables as required.
3) Place in pan, put in preheated oven.
4) Roast until desired doneness.

Quality Indicators:
Caramelized / Crusty / Golden Outside
Juicy, moist
Tender inside
Desired degree of doneness

Broiling, Grilling, Griddling and Pan-Broiling

Broiling: To cook with radiant heat from above. (500-2000°)
Grilling: Cooking on an open grid over a heat source.
Pan-Broiling: Cooked in a sauté pan or skillet, uncovered and drained of fat.
Griddling: Done on a solid surface, usually conducting heat directly from the surface to the food.

Guidelines for Broiling, Grilling, Pan-Broiling:
Types of items: Small, tender items without too much fat
Seasoning: Season prior to cooking, so moisture is not lost.
Controlling: Temperature Move to various parts of grill.
Use different temperature zones so you can thoroughly cook an item without burning or charring
Cooking time: By judgment which comes with experience. Depends on product size, characteristic, and how you want it cooked
Marinades: Soften tough cuts of meat and infuse flavor
Seasoned butters: Melt into foods, basting, adding flavor, and richness. Used often with grilled items when you can’t make a sauce.

Other: Use crosshatch marks for presentation.

Broiling, Grilling, Griddling and Pan-Broiling
Basic Broiling / Grilling Procedure:
Collect and prepare equipment
Preheat broiler / grill
Score fatty corners to prevent curling
Brush with oil or marinade
Clean grill
Apply grill marks, flip with tongs
Apply glazes or sauces after halfway cooked

Basic Pan-broiling, Searing, & Griddling Procedure:
Pre-heat seasoned dry skillet. Do not add fat
Proceed as for grilling, pouring off fat as it accumulates
Do not cover or use liquids

Quality Indicators:
Golden / Carmel, moist
Cooked correctly – not burnt or charred
Attractive appearance

Definition: Dry-heat with fat.
To cook quickly in a small amount of fat.
“A la minute” – to the minute. Usually sauté dishes are cooked to order.
Sauté – “to jump”

Guidelines for Sautéing
Types of items: Tender cuts, thin and/or small items, Vegetables / lean
Size of items: Must fit in pan, shouldn’t have too many angles
Amount and type of fat: A small amount of highly stable fat. The least amount of fat to get the job done correctly

Type of pan: A pan with a handle. Shallow, sloped sides. Sauteuse or wok. Don’t use too large of a pan
Temperature: High heat – just below smoke point
Amount of items in pan: Do not overcrowd to allow items room to move

Seasoning: Season lightly and prior to sautéing, or seasoned flour
Dredging: Dragging through flour, etc. prior to cooking.
Helps maintain moisture retention. Promotes even browning and prevents sticking. Protects protein. Helps when making a sauce

-“A la minute”
-Don’t burn the food
-Used for lean white pieces of protein.

Basic Sautéing Procedure:
Use tender meats. Dry product – season
1) Heat pan. The smaller / thinner the cut, the higher heat needed
2) Use an oil with a high smoke point, using enough to coat the pan lightly.
3) Dredge if desired
4) Do not overload the pan or flip too often
5) Brown on all sides. Drain if necessary
6) Remove meat
7) Prepare sauce / jus / gravy
8) Return meat to gravy briefly, if desired

Quality Indicators:
Cooked evenly, browned appropriately, moist, tender, not oily.
Proper internal temperature.
A point – perfect doneness

Definition: To cook in a moderate amount of fat in a pan over moderate heat

Guidelines for Pan-Frying
Types of items: Small tender pieces of meat (fish fillets, whole fish)
Size of items: Usually smaller, larger than sauté
Amount and type of fat: Half way up
Type of pan: Sautoir
Temperature: Moderate
Multiple Batches: Have item pre-batched in small batches, don’t crowd pan

Basic Pan-Frying Procedure:
Collect all equipment and food supplies
Prepare meats as required
Dredge and / or bread
Heat a moderate amount of fat in a skillet or sauté pan
Add meat
When turning, always do away from yourself to prevent burns or splatters
Brown, turn. Large pieces may be finished in oven
Serve immediately

Standard Breading Procedure:
Dry the product
Season the product or flour, do not season breadcrumbs
Dip in flour to coat evenly, shake off excess
Dip in egg wash to coat completely, drain excess
Dip in breadcrumbs, press gently, gently shake off excess

Quality Indicators: Crisp, brown outside, moist not greasy

Definition: To cook in a moderate amount of fat
in a pan over moderate heat

Guidelines for Pan-Frying
Types of items: Small tender pieces of meat (fish fillets, whole fish)
Size of items: Usually smaller, larger than sauté
Amount and type of fat: Half way up
Type of pan: Sautoir
Temperature: Moderate
Multiple Batches: Have item pre-batched in small batches, don’t crowd pan

Basic Pan-Frying Procedure:
Collect all equipment and food supplies
Prepare meats as required
Dredge and / or bread
Heat a moderate amount of fat in a skillet or sauté pan
Add meat
When turning, always do away from yourself to prevent burns or splatters
Brown, turn. Large pieces may be finished in oven
Serve immediately

Standard Breading Procedure:
Dry the product
Season the product or flour, do not season breadcrumbs
Dip in flour to coat evenly, shake off excess
Dip in egg wash to coat completely, drain excess
Dip in breadcrumbs, press gently, gently shake off excess

Quality Indicators: Crisp, brown outside, moist not greasy

Definition: Not greasy, dry-heat with fat.
To cook a food by submerging it in hot fat.

Guidelines for Deep Frying
Types of items: Low moisture, low sugar foods
Size and shape of items: Small sizes that will allow for even cooking. Turkey / prime rib
Type of fat: Fryolater for deep fat frying
Type of pan: Deep pan which would allow the food to be completely submerged
Temperature: Ideally 350° to 375°
Basket vs. Swim: Battered – swim, Breaded – basket
Fat enemies: Heat, oxygen, water, salt, food particles, detergent, free fatty acids (present in meat)
Safety precautions: Do not drop foods in (to prevent splashing), monitor temperature carefully (fire). Dry items. Long sleeves, use care when straining
Care of fryer fat: Strain often to remove old food, flour, and breading. Don’t rely on salted items. Rinse well after using chemicals, never allow liquid to get in.

Fat Melt Point Smoke Point Flash Point
Butter 92-98°F 206°F Any temp. above 300°F
Butter, clarified 92-98°F 335-380°F Any temp. above 300°F
Lard 89-98°F 370°F n/a
Deep-fryer shortening, heavy-duty, premium 102°F 440°F 690°F
Canola oil n/a 430-448°F 553-560°F
Corn oil 40-50°F 450°F 610°F
Cocoa butter 88-93°F n/a n/a
Cottonseed oil 55°F 450°F 650°F
Margarine 94-98°F 410-430°F Any temp. above 300°F
Olive oil, extra virgin 32°F 350-410°F n/a
Olive oil, pure or pomace 32°F 410-440°F 437°F
Peanut oil 28°F 450°F 540°F
Shortening, vegetable, all-purpose 102°F 410°F 625°F
Soybean oil -5°F 495°F 540°F

Sauce is a thickened, flavored liquid designed to accompany food in order to enhance and bring out its flavor.

The Roman Empire: 1st century AD Romans used all purpose sauce, garum, splashed on everything (made from fermented fish entrails)

Catherine de Medici: Married Henry II, brought chefs from Italy (Florence) to France

Varenne / Carême / Escoffier: Rewrote cooking in their own times each one evolving from the other;

Varenne was the first father of sauces, Carême classified them and Escoffier reduced and simplified the process.

Nouvelle Cuisine: Small portions, lighter sauces, flawless techniques: Ferdinand Point

Today: Continue to grow, expand, and develop new styles based on lighter, healthier and more nutritious foods

In your work experience and your experience as a diner, what types of sauces are you seeing most often? What do you think future trends might be? Salsas, chutneys, vegetable stocks, less fat, cream and butter, roux – use of veggies, beans, grains to thicken stocks

Quality Indicators:
Flavor – enhances, not disguises
Color – should accent a dish - luster
Texture – compliment dish
Stability – should not change through service
Consistency – thick enough to cling, not lumpy

Sauce’s contribution to a dish:
Appearance – color, shine, luster
Interest and appetite appeal

Sauce Components
Thickening Agent
Seasoning, flavor, garnish


The function of the liquid is to provide base, body and volume.
The liquids that are most often used for sauce making include:
Milk or cream
Butter (clarified)
Tomato Products

The most important thing to remember about liquids used for sauces
is a quality sauce starts with a quality base.

Thickening Agents

The consistency of a sauce should be thick enough to cling, not heavy or pasty.
Sauces are usually thickened by one of the following:
Gelatinization of starches
Coagulation of proteins
Emulsification of two components
Reduction of the sauce
Pureeing the sauce
Natural viscosity of the ingredients

Thickening Method #1: Gelatinization of starches
The most common method of thickening sauces is Gelatinization of starches.

This is defined as the process by which starches swell up and absorb water.
The most common starch used for thickening sauces is flour

Guidelines for using starches as thickening agents:
-Avoid lumps
How? Separate starch granules by mixing with liquid
-Avoid raw, floury taste
How? Fully cook roux and sauce
-Correct consistency
How? Adjust to thicker or thinner, bring to a boil, avoid acid

Starch granules are separated in two ways
Mix the starch with fat: when cooked, it is called Roux when raw, it is called Beurre Manie.
Mix the starch with cold liquid: with cornstarch it is called a slurry, with flour it is called a whitewash.


Roux: A cooked mixture of equal parts fat and flour by weight
Fats that can be used in a roux include the following:
Clarified butter – preferred for flavor
Margarine – lower cost, poor flavor
Animal fat – when that flavor is appropriate
Vegetable oil – not used much, no flavor, Cajun roux

Is there an advantage to using clarified butter for roux? Yes, it has higher smoke point, and won’t have specks of browned milk solids at higher temp.
Flours most commonly used in the making of roux include bread flour and all-purpose flour.
Do you think ANY flour can be substituted in the same proportion in a roux?
No, they all have different protein contents / thickening properties.

Basic Procedure for Making Roux
Melt fat
Coat flour
Cook to desired consistency
A roux is cooked because the process removes the raw, cereal taste of the flour.

Types of Roux
White roux cooked for 1-2 minutes, no color, béchamel
Blond roux cooked for a few minutes, ivory, velouté
Brown roux cooked for 5 minutes, dark brown, espagnole
Cajun roux cooked for a long time, made with vegetable oil, very dark

Adding liquid to roux, used when A roux is made for a specific sauce – singer.
Method: Add cool, not cold, stock to hot roux.

Adding roux to liquid, used when thickening a stock for a soup\or sauce (or when you don’t know specific quantity).
Method: cool roux – room temperature, mix into hot stock with a whisk, stirring vigorously.

Guidelines for Incorporating Roux
Do not use a stainless steel whisk and aluminum pan together
Do not burn or scorch (if you do, throw out)
Avoid over-thickening
Avoid high temperatures – use moderate heat

Light: 6 oz butter + 6 oz flour = 12 oz roux, which thickens 1 gal. of liquid
Medium: 8 oz butter+ 8 oz flour = 16 oz roux, which thickens 1 gal. of liquid
Heavy: 12 oz butter + 12 oz flour = 24 oz roux, which thickens 1 gal. of liquid
Beurre Manié: equal amount, by weight of flour and soft whole butter, kneaded together until smooth
Used for: Quick thickening, finishing sauces – at the end
Procedure: Quick thickening at the end of the process,
knead together butter and flour to form a paste, whisk in sauce to finish

Whitewash: Flour and cold water
Use: Not often used

Cornstarch: Partially cooked starch, mix with cold water, very shiny
Use: Sweet sauces, desserts, meats

Arrowroot: Natural tasting, made from tropical plant, cooked then ground. Stable sauces
Use: Expensive, makes clear sauces, less shiny

Waxy Maize: More processed cornstarch, more stable – can take high and low temperatures
Use: Frozen food starch

Instant starches: Pregelatinizationed starch – “ProGel”
Use: Sprinkle in liquid and makes thick

Crumbs: Used when smoothness is not a desired texture, panade, old-fashioned
Use: English bread sauce – milk bread crumbs
Liaison: A mixture of eggs and cream used to thicken
Its thickening comes from coagulation of proteins in eggs.
The proportion for a liaison is: 1 egg yolk to 2-3 oz heavy cream
Why are these two ingredients used together?
Yolks coagulate at 140-158°F, when you mix with cream
the coagulation point is raised to 180-185°F
(always add at the end utilizing the tempering method)

Why is a liaison used?
To add richness and flavor, for Thickening and texture (smoothness), classic thickening technique

Procedure for using a liaison:
-Beat yolks and cream
-Have liquid hot
-Temper (mix some of the hot liquid into the yolk mixture a small amount at a time)
-Add warm liaison back to sauce
-Return to heat, but do not exceed 180°F
-Always do at the end of the cooking process

What happens when over-coagulation occurs?
The product will separate – eggs scramble (curdle)
Why do you think extra attention to food safety needs to be given to liaison-thickened sauces? What are the proper precautions?
Egg and cream are added to the sauce. It can spoil easily. Keep out of the danger zone, do in small batches.
Definition: A uniform mixing of two unmixable ingredients
The thickening power is derived from suspension of two elements. The lecithin in yolks coat the oil droplets and hold them in suspension while entrapping air.
Emulsion sauces can be made with: Partially cooked ingredients (hollandaise) or uncooked (mayonnaise).

Hollandaise: emulsification of egg yolks and clarified butter

The Basic Procedure for Preparing an Emulsion
-Combine egg yolks with vinegar in bowl and set over double boiler, whisking vigorously
-Continue whisking until mixture is thick enough to leave a trail – mayonnaise consistency
-Whisk in lemon juice
-Slowly add clarified butter to yolk mixture, whisking constantly
-Add in rest of lemon juice, season with salt, pepper, cayenne
-Strain through cheesecloth

Why do you think extra attention to food safety needs to be given to emulsion sauces such as Hollandaise?
What are the proper precautions? Raw eggs are involved – use pasteurized egg yolks, discard after 2 hours

Definition: Evaporation of liquid to concentrate flavor and texture.
Why is this becoming a popular thickening technique? There is nothing added (no fat or starch). It is more health-conscious.
Precautions: Avoid changing flavors, Season at the end, Do not boil or reduce too much, Change pans so it doesn’t pick up burnt particles from sides. Some products cannot be reduced.

Coulis: Pureé of fruit or vegetable used as a sauce
Texture can range from: slightly smooth / grainy to lumpy or chunky
Procedure: Cook main ingredient with flavor and liquid
Adjust consistency, season, garnish

Natural Viscosity
There are a few ingredients that are naturally thick on their own and when used in a sauce provide natural thickening. Can you think of some examples? Chocolate, yogurt, cream, grated corn or potatoes
Guidelines for seasoning, flavoring and garnishing sauces
Complementary to the dish (does not overwhelm)
Should seem stronger on it's own
Adjust at end
Garnish should compliment
Salt and lemon to emphasize flavor

Finishing Techniques
Reducing: To concentrate flavors

Heavy Cream – gives flavor and richness
Liaison – Thickens, richness, smoothness
Monte au beurre – gives extra shine, smoothness, taste, richness

Straining: Makes sauce smooth
Adjusting: Seasoning, taste, fresh herbs, salt & pepper, acid
Mother sauces are also known as leading or grand (mother).
Small sauces are also known as compound sauces.
In some cases there is a secondary or intermediate sauce between the mother sauce and the small sauce.
Example: Veal Valouté – Allemande -- Aurora or Mushroom

You will find the classical method of categorizing sauces differs in almost every text. Why do you think this is? Different chefs adjust to suit their needs.
Mother Sauces

Description / Uses:
Very neutral flavors, many uses, made by thickening scalded milk with white roux and onion pique
Scaled milk
White roux
Onion piquet
Basic Method:
Scald milk with onion piquet.
Make white roux and cool.
Add roux to milk and simmer.
Simmer until no starchy taste.
Strain, season with salt, pepper
Common Small Sauces:
Cream – adds heavy cream (stabilizes and adds richness)
Mornay – Swiss cheese and parmesan cheese
Horseradish – ground horseradish
Mustard – Add mustard
Soubise – Onions cooked along time in oven, then puréed into sauce.
Description / Uses:
Made by thickening white stock with roux
“Velouté” – French for “velvet” – very smooth

White stock

Basic Method:
Make blond roux and cool.
Add to hot stock (simmering).
Cook until starchy taste is gone.

Secondary Sauces:
Allemande – French for “German", finished with liason-cream, egg yolk, lemon juice
Vin Blanc – Fish Velouté – add shallots, white wine, and cream
Supreme – Chicken Velouté with cream added

Common Small Sauces:
Cardinal – Fish stock, fish velouté, heavy cream, and cayenne pepper.
Boil, swirl in lobster butter, garnish with chopped butter.
Normandy – Mushroom trimmings, fish stock, fish velouté. Finish with egg yolk and cream liaison.
Allamande, Supreme, Mushroom, Princess

Notes: Many uses
Espagnole (Brown Sauce)
Description / Uses:
Made from brown stock to which brown roux, mirepoix, and tomato purée have been added. Used as a base for other sauces, not by itself

Main Components:
Brown stock
Brown roux

Basic Method:
Carmelize mirepoi
Add brown stock, sachet, simmer 1½ hrs.
Strain and ice bath
Do not season!

Secondary Sauces:
Demi-glace – ½ brown stock, ½ brown sauce, reduce by 1/2. Makes a very rich brown sauce.
Jus lie – stock thickened with cornstarch or arrow root or rich brown stock simmered and
reduced so that it thickens naturally because of concentrated gelatin and protein.

Common Small Sauces:
Tomato Sauce

Description / Uses:
Made from tomatoes, vegetables, seasonings and white stock;
sometimes thickened with a blond or brown roux.
Main Components (Classical):
Salt pork
White stock
Roasted pork bones

Main Components (Modern):
Olive oil
Herbs – thyme, oregano, basil
Salt and Pepper

Basic Method (Classical):
Render salt pork
Sweat mirepoix
Add white stock, sachet, pork bones
Put through foodmill, chinois

Basic Method (Modern):
Sweat mirepoix in olive oil.
Add tomato and some herbs.
Simmer slowly and add rest of herbs, season to taste.

Common Small Sauces:
French -> Creole, Milanese

Description / Uses:
An emulsified sauce made from egg yolks, clarified warm
butter, water, lemon juice or vinegar.

Main Components:
-1 yolk will emulsify 3-4oz clarified butter
Clarified butter
Crushed peppercorns
White vinegar

Basic Method:
Reduce crushed peppercorns and white vinegar.
Refresh with splash of cold water.
Add yolks to stainless steel bowl.
Place over double broiler, whisking constantly.
Remove from heat.
Add clarified butter, slowly whisking.
Season with salt, cayenne, lemon juice
Strain through cheesecloth.

Common Small Sauces:
Bernaise, Palois (mint), Blood orange (Maltaise), Choron (tomato)
Must be held below 140°
Sabayon: Emulsion
Modern Tomato Sauce: Reduction
Pan Gravy: Starch, Reduction
Applesauce: Puree, Reduction
Beurre Blanc: Emulsion
Red Pepper Coulis: Puree, Naturally Thickened, Reduction
Jus Lié: Starch
Yogurt / Sour Cream Sauce: Naturally Thickened
Sauce Anglaise: Liaison
Mayonnaise: Emulsion
Apricot Glaze: Naturally Thickened, Puree, Reduction
Bercy Sauce: Starch
Chocolate Sauce: Naturally Thickened
Mornay Sauce: Starch, Liaison
Barbecue Sauce: Naturally Thickened, Puree, Reduction

If your chef told you to make 1 gallon of roast beef gravy, how would you go about it with no recipe?
Pan Gravy – roux; Jus – cornstarch
Deglaze with broth or stock first

Garlic Cream Sauce: Mince garlic, sauté, ad cream, reduce or thicken, season
Red Pepper Coulis: Roast and clean peppers. Sweat with shallots, add stock
Simmer, puree, reduce, strain, thicken if necessary (season)
Sauce Maltaise: Prepare as for hollandaise, using OJ. Add rind at the end.
Mustard Sauce: Prepare roux
Scald milk, add cool roux, simmer
Add onion pique, simmer 30 minutes
Add mustard, strain, season

Salsa / Relishes / Chutneys: Served cold, served as condiment
Characteristics: Vegetable or fruit base with other ingredients – not usually cooked.
Usually marinated to enhance flavor. Contrasting, bold flavors. Can be eaten on their own, chunky, not liquid.

Compound Butters
Incorporates various flavorings within softened butter
Used to finish dishes or sliced and served on grilled items.

Essences / Broths / Natural Juices
Natural flavors, enhanced
Thin consistency (unthickened)
Only for complementary flavors and moistness

Are there any sauces that are a part of your culinary culture or that were traditional in your family? Instructor-led discussion

Vegetables are no longer relegated to being an afterthought thrown on the plate to add some color to a dish. Why do you think vegetables are playing a more prominent role on the menu? Instructor-led discussion
Healthy alternative, lower cost than protein, take up more space on plate, add a variety of textures and cooking methods, allow Chef to use local farm-fresh ingredients
In what ways are vegetables being used in
Fine dining:
Casual dining:
Fast food:
How has the concept of vegetable cookery changed over the last generation? Why?
Cooking changes the following characteristics of vegetables: Texture, flavor, color, nutrients
What would the ideally cooked vegetable be in respect to the above 4 characteristics? Firm (al dente), flavorful (emphasize), bright in color, nutrient rich – retain as much nutrition as possible
The texture of a cooked vegetable is affected by 3 things:

A) Fiber – types of fiber found in vegetables include cellulose and pectins.
Fiber is made FIRMER by acids and sugar.
Fiber is made SOFTER by heat and alkalis.
Fiber varies based upon: Type of vegetable, age of vegetable, part of vegetable

B) Starch
Potatoes – high in starch, gets softer when cooked.
Amount of starch will have an effect on texture.

C) Doneness
Guidelines for proper doneness are as follows:
Do not overcook
Cook as close to service as possible
For advance prep, undercook slightly, cool rapidly, and reheat to order
For uniform cooking, cut into uniform pieces
For tender veggies, treat tough pieces separately, then cook tender
Don’t mix batches of cooked vegetables

The taste of a cooked vegetable is affected largely by 3 things:

A) Amount of flavor lost in the cooking process
To control loss:
Cook for the shortest amount of time possible
Use boiling salted water
Use as little liquid as possible
Steam veggies if possible
When loss is good:
For strong flavored vegetables, to cut flavor, e.g. onion family, cabbage family, and certain root vegetables

B) Chemical changes caused by cooking
Affect: flavor and texture

C) Age of the vegetable
Young, fresh vegetables have a high sugar content, which turns to starch as they sit
Try to serve the freshest vegetables possible
For old vegetables, add sugar during cooking
Sometimes canned or frozen can be of better quality than fresh

In your own diet, do you think you consume enough fruits and vegetables? Instructor-led discussion
Broiling and grilling
Types: Softer vegetables such as tomatoes can be broiled, as they cannot
easily rest on a grill grate. A large variety of vegetables can be grilled in a similar fashion to meats. Smaller vegetables can be skewered and grilled.
Preparation: Cut into appropriate sizes and shapes, season, marinate or prepare as directed in the recipe
Seasoning: Since vegetables have little fat, they can benefit greatly from an application of oil before grilling.
Heat the grill or broiler
Use a wire brush to remove any burnt particles on the broiler or grill grate.
Place the vegetables on the broiler grate, broiler platter or grill grate and cook to desired doneness while developing the proper color.
Examples: Zucchini, squash, broccoli, cauliflower, onion, mushroom, bell pepper

Roasting and Baking
Types: Hearty vegetables like squash and eggplant roast well. Aromatic vegetables such as onion, turnip and carrot are often roasted alongside poultry.
Preparation: Cut into appropriate sizes and shapes, season with salt and pepper. Toss in oil if desired. Some vegetables can be roasted whole. Peeling may not be required, depending on the type.
Seasoning: Salt and pepper are usually used. Oil and butter will help the vegetables brown and crisp in the oven.
Wash, peel, cut and prepare the vegetables as directed in the recipe.
Season the vegetables and rub or toss in oil or butter if desired.
Place vegetables in a baking dish and bake in a preheated oven until done.
Examples: Squash, onion, carrot, celery

Types: Vegetables to be sautéed should be crisp when cooked and show little moisture loss.
Most vegetables can be sautéed, from greens to firmer ones, such as onion
Preparation: All parts of the sauté should be prepared before beginning, as it is a quick process. Vegetables should be cut into uniform pieces to promote even cooking. Tougher vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, green beans, and tubers may need to be blanched before sautéing.
Seasoning: Many different seasonings can be used in a vegetable sauté, but they should be added at the end of the process in order to accurately evaluate the flavor of the dish.
Wash the vegetables and cut them into uniform shapes.
Heat a sauté pan and add enough fat to cover the bottom.
Add ingredients according to their cooking times, plan so that they are all done at the same time.
Do not overcrowd the pan.
Toss to flip.
Add vegetables with high water content, such as tomatoes, last.
Season as desired, or add ingredients to make a glaze.
Examples: Onions, asparagus, mushrooms, greens, carrots

Sweating: Sweating occurs in a pan with little oil and low heat. Moisture and flavors are drawn out by this process. This method amplifies the natural flavors of vegetables.

Types: Heartier vegetables such as potatoes and squash are best suited for deep-frying.
Preparation: Most vegetables will need to be floured, battered or breaded before frying. Longer-cooking vegetables will need to be blanched beforehand.
Seasoning: While vegetables can be marinated or seasoned directly before breading, it is more common to season the flour or batter used to coat them or serve them with a flavorful accompaniment.
Slice, trim or prepare the vegetables to be deep-fried. Cut them into uniform shapes to ensure even cooking.
Blanch if needed.
Season, batter and bread them as desired.
Heat oil to desired temperature, usually 325° to 350°. The vegetables must cook quickly enough to cook the interior without burning its surface.
Place the vegetables in the fat using either the basket, double basket, or swimming method.
Deep-fry until done. They should have a crispy, golden-brown surface.
Remove and allow excess fat to drain off. Season with salt if desired
If needed, hold for service under a heating lamp.
Examples: Onions, asparagus, mushrooms, broccoli, potatoes

Pan Frying
This process is similar to deep frying, though not as popular.
Green tomatoes are seasoned and fried with this method, as are eggplant slices for eggplant parmesan.

Types: Virtually every vegetable can be boiled. Green vegetables are boiled quickly in a large amount of water to avoid nutrient and color loss. Starchy vegetables are usually slowly simmered to cook them evenly.
Preparation: Since nearly every vegetable can be boiled, the methods of preparation are just as vast, but all should be uniform in size to promote even cooking. Some may be cooked whole, while others need to be peeled, cut and trimmed before boiling
Seasoning: Usually, boiled vegetables are only seasoned in salt, but citrus, wine, herbs and spices are sometimes added to the water. Boiled vegetables can be finished with butter, cream or sauce
Wash, peel and cut the vegetables into uniform sizes.
Bring an adequate amount of water, stock or court bouillon to a boil, making sure there is enough to cover the vegetables and allow amole room to move around.
Season if desired.
Add the vegetables to the boiling liquid. The post may be covered if cooking white, red or yellow vegetables. Do not cover green vegetables.
Cook to desired doneness.
Remove the vegetables with a slotted spoon or drain into a colander.
Put the vegetables in ice water and refrigerate until needed, or serve immediately.
Examples: Many!

Blanching and Parboiling
Blanching and parboiling are used when vegetable will be finished with another cooking method, but need a head start. Vegetables are boiled in a large amount of water to remove bitter flavors, soften firm foods, set colors or loosen skins for peeling. Blanching is usually done for only a few seconds, while parboiling is done for several minutes.

Shocking or Refreshing
Purpose: Unless they are to be served immediately, boiled, blanched and par boiled vegetables need to be submerged in an ice water bath in order to set color and prevent overcooking.
Procedure: Immediately after removing the vegetables from the boiling water, submerge them in ice water just long enough to cool them down. Leaving them in the water too long may cause flavor and nutrients to be leached out.

Types: Nearly any vegetable that can be boiled can also be steamed.
Preparation: Vegetable should be washed,
as well as peeled and cut into uniform sizes if appropriate.
Seasoning: Stock and Court Bouillon can be used to steam in place of water. Herbs and spices can be added to the cooking liquid.
Wash, peel and cut the vegetables into uniform sizes.
Bring cooking liquid to a boil in a covered pan or double boiler.
Place vegetables in a single layer on a perforated pan and place over the boiling liquid, or add the vegetables directly to the liquid if pan-steaming.
Cover and cook to desired doneness.
Remove and serve, or refresh and refrigerate until needed.
Examples: Beans, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower
Braising and Stewing
Types: Braises usually contain one vegetable, such as cabbage or lettuce. Stews contain a variety , such as tomatoes, eggplants, squash, onion, carrot, celery and peppers.
Preparation: Vegetables to be braised or stewed can be shredded, quartered, cut thick, or left whole.
Seasoning: Braises and stews contain hearty flavors such as garlic, bacon, herbs or mirepoix. The cooking liquid can contain stock, wine or tomato
Wash, peel and cut the vegetables into uniform sizes.
Sauté or sweat the flavoring ingredients in fat to release their flavors.
Add the ingredients according to their cooking times, then add the cooking liquid. It should partially cover all vegetables.
Bring the liquid to a boil, reduce to simmer, cover, and cook in an oven or on the stovetop until done.
If desired, remove the main ingredients and reduce the sauce, then return the ingredients.
Examples: Cabbage, lettuce, celery, squash, eggplant, tomato
Types: Since microwaves essentially steam foods,
almost any vegetable that can be steamed can be microwaved with similar results.
Preparation: Since microwaves are small, it is impractical to prepare a large amount of food in them. Otherwise, the same procedures for steaming should be taken.
Seasoning: Steaming brings out the natural flavors in food, and the microwave do so with less nutrient loss. Microwaved foods can be seasoned with sauces, herbs, butter and spices.
Wash, peel and cut the vegetables into uniform sizes.
Arrange vegetables on a microwave-safe dish and cover with a lid or plastic wrap, allowing some steam to escape while cooking.
Cook to desired doneness, allowing for some carryover cooking. Stir as necessary.
Serve or refresh and refrigerate until needed.
Examples: Green beans, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower

Preparing Legumes:
Soaking: Dried beans must be soaked in water for several hours to soften them and reduce cooking times
Items that do not require soaking: Legumes and split peas
Two soaking methods: Beans can either be soaked in cold water for several hours, or they may be covered in water and brought to a boil, covered, and left to soak for one hour.
Procedure for soaking:
Sort through the beans, removing any small rocks and debris.
Place the beans in a bowl and cover with cold water, removing any skinks or other items that float to the surface.
Drain the beans in a colander, then rinse under running water
Return the beans to a bowl and cover with fresh water, allow three cups of water for every cup of beans.
Soak for the specified amount of time, usually several hours to overnight.
Drain with a colander, discarding the water
Procedure for quick-soaking:
Rinse and sort through the beans, removing any small rocks and debris.
Place the beans in a saucepan and add enough water to cover them by two inches.
Bring to a boil and simmer for two minutes.
Remove from heat, cover and soak for one hour.
Drain and discard the liquid, proceeding with the recipe.

Procedure for cooking legumes:
After soaking, place the drained beans in a heavy saucepan and cover with cold water or stock. Allow three times as much liquid as beans. Flavor as directed, but do not add salt or acids until the beans have reached the desired tenderness.
Slowly bring to a boil. Boil uncovered for 10 minutes or as directed.
Cover and reduce the heat. Simmer until the beans are tender. Do not stir. Add more liquid if needed.
Drain the beans through a colander.
Effect of acid and salt on beans during the cooking process: Toughen the skin

Types: Puréed vegetables are usually cooked first via baking, boiling, steaming or microwaving. Red, white and yellow vegetables should be cooked until soft and puréed hot, while green vegetables should be refreshed and puréed cold.
Preparation: Vegetables need to be properly cooked before puréeing.
Seasoning: Vegetables should be seasoned according to their prior cooking method. Purées can also be seasoned after blending and finished with sauces, butter or cream.
Cook vegetables to tenderness.
Purée in a food processor, blender, or food mill.
Season or finish as desired.
Examples: Potatoes, parsnips, carrots, turnips

Canning: Foods are sealed in airtight cans and pasteurized to kill bacteria
Freezing: Bacteria and aging are halted by sub-zero temperatures
Drying: Air and gentle heat remove moisture from food
Fermenting: Aging foods with salt to draw out moisture
Pickling: Acids are used to prevent bacterial deterioration
Salads and Dressings

Salad: a variety of dishes that often include mixtures of raw vegetables and fruits

Herba Salata: “Salted herb”, salad derives from this because of
the importance of dressing to the salad

Salad preparation
Tossed – usually assorted greens tossed together
Combination – consists of two/more salads in an arrangement
Bound – salads mixed with a heavy dressing, like mayonnaise
Vegetable – salad whose main ingredients are vegetables other than lettuce/leafy greens
Fruit Salads – salads in which majority of and main ingredient is fruit

Salads classified by function:
Appetizer – served as a first course, used to lighten course, load + stimulate appetite
Accompaniment – served with a main course, like a side dish or vegetable
Main course – should be large and have a variety to be nutritious and filling
Separate course – served after main course to cleanse palate and stimulate digestion
Desert – usually sweet; may contain fruits, nuts, gelatin and cream

Which ingredients do you think might negatively impact the health value of salads?: (answers may vary) fatty, high caloric salad dressings, bacon, cheese, croutons, fried meats, salami/ham, candied/flavored nuts

4 basic parts of a salad
Base / Underliner – usually leafy greens, cup shaped leaves of iceberg or boston lettuce give height to salads, confine loose pieces of food and add to appearance.
Body – main part of salad.
Garnish – gives eye appeal, may also add flavor, should be simple and compliment the theme of the salad.
Dressing – seasoned liquid or semi-liquid added to give flavor, tartness moisture and spiciness.

Salad ingredients
Lettuces - Mild, general, neutral flavor.Iceberg, romaine, leaf, bib
Chicories - Endive, more bitter. Frissee, Radicchio, Treviso, Escarole.
Other greens - Spinach, Arugula, Dandelion, Watercress, Mache.
Purchasing greens: Buy as needed. Greens are the most perishable foods.
Use reputable, reliable, consistent purveyor and know their schedule.

Storing: 34° - 36°, well separated from ethylene, if possible. Air circulation is important. Don’t seal or pack too tightly. Don’t wash until you need. Store in original container.

To cut or tear: Cut with stainless steel, plastic, or ceramic knife. Tearing is not feasible in a busy restaurant.
Washing: Cut with stainless steel, plastic, or ceramic knife. Tearing is not feasible in a busy restaurant.

Draining/drying: Use a salad spinner or use perforated lexans. Chill.

Salad dressing: a seasoned liquid or semi-liquid added to the body

Functions: give flavor, moistness, enrich and enhance

Dressing groups
Oil and vinegar – simple mixtures of oil, vinegar, and seasonings, 3 pt oil: 1 pt vinegar
Emulsified vinaigrettes – thickened with eggs or mustard
Mayonnaise-based dressings – dressings with a mayonnaise-based emulsion
Other dressing – cooked, dressings, fruit, fat free, diet, vegetable puree

Emulsion: uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids

2 types of emulsions:
Temporary – one in which the liquids always separate after being mixed
Permanent – an emulsion which does not separate (mayonnaise)

3 components of an emulsion:

Stability depends on: the size to which the molecules are broken up

Temperatures role: room temperature oil is easier to break into droplets

Dressing Ingredients
Basic French Dressing (vinaigrette)
Description: Simple mixture of oil, vinegar, and seasonings
Ratio – 3 part oil, 1 part vinegar, salt and pepper to taste
Balance – "Balance" is combining tastes in such a way that they temper and complement one another, with no one aspect overpowering the whole.
Based on the composition of the salad-
a white wine vinegar will taste and feel a little lighter than a red wine vinegar; an aged sherry vinegar should be a little fuller and more complex, with oaky notes.
Oil-Based on flavor- Full bodied Olive oils may be too strong for some salads and just right for others. Blending may be the perfect choice to accomplish balance
Other flavorings: You can blend miso, tamari, olives, capers, vegetarian Worcestershire sauce, Dijon mustard, sea vegetables, or pesto into your vinegar to stand in for some or all of the salt.
Procedure: Combine ingredients in a bowl and mix well. Blend again before using.

Emulsified French Dressing (or emulsified vinaigrette)
Description: Basic French dressing to which egg yolk has been added

Procedure: Place eggs in bowl and beat with
whip attachment until well beaten.
Mix together dry ingredients and add to bowl.
Beat well. Turn mixer to high speed. Add oil very slowly.
When dressing becomes thick, thin out with a little vinegar.
Gradually add remaining oil, alternating with vinegar. Beat in lemon juice.

Description: Basic emulsion for salad dressing preparation

Procedure: Place yolks in bowl and beat with whip attachment. Add 2 tbsp. vinegar and beat well. Mix together dry ingredients and add to bowl, Beat until well mixed. Blending at high speed, add oil drop by drop. When emulsion forms, add more. When mayonnaise thickens, thin out with a little vinegary. Beat in remaining oil alternatively with vinegar. Adjust tartness and consistency with lemon juice.

Mayonnaise is a basis for: ranch, blue cheese

Keep the salad off the rim of the plate
Strive for a good balance of color
Height helps make a salad attractive
Cut ingredients neatly
Make every ingredient identifiable
Keep it simple

Most common complaint about salads served to you: bad greens, not properly cleaned, weak or acidic dressings, soggy, limp, warm

Combination or Composed Salads
Description: Combinations of various salad techniques

Guidelines: Observe the guidelines for preparing each component, such as greens, vegetables, cooked salads and fruit salads.

Procedure: Follow guidelines for tossed salad. Prepare ingredients for the specific salad. Arrange artfully on top of greens. Garnish.

Example: Chef salad, cobb, nicoise

Lettuce Family Description and Use

Iceberg Most popular salad green. Firm, compact head with crisp, mild tasting, pale green leaves. Retains crispness, blends well with other greens.

Romaine Elongated, loosely packed head with dark green, coarse leaves. Crisp texture with full, sweet flavor. Keeps well. Essential for Caesar salad.

Boston Small, round heads with soft, fragile leaves. Deep green outside, shading to nearly white inside. Rich, mild flavor and delicate buttery texture. Bruises easily. Does not keep well.

Bibb Similar to Boston, but smaller and more delicate. Color ranges from dark green outside to creamy yellow at the core. Tender, delicate and costly.

Leaf Forms bunches rather than heads. Soft, fragile leaves with curly edges. Colors from all green to shades of red. Wilts easily and does not keep.

Baby Lettuces Usually sold as a mixture.

Chicory Family Description and Use

Belgian Endive Narrow, lightly packed, pointed heads resembling spearheads, 4-6”. Pale yellow green to white. Crisp leaves with a waxy texture and pleasantly bitter flavor.

Curly Endive Narrow, curly, twisted leaves with firm texture and bitter flavor. Outside leaves are dark green; core is yellow or white. Too bitter to be served alone.

Escarole Broad, thick leaves in bunches rather than heads. Texture is coarse and slightly tough. Flavor is somewhat bitter. Do not serve alone.

Radicchio Red leaf, Italian variety of chicory. Creamy white ribs or veins. Small round head with a slightly bitter taste.

Others Description and Use

Arugula Also known as “rugula”. Pungent, related to mustard and watercress. Tender and perishable.

Dandelion Leaves of dandelion plant. Use young, tender leaves cultivated for food service.

Mâche Also called corn salad, lambs tongue, or field lettuce. Small tender green with spoon-shaped leaves. Light in color.

Micro Greens Most from flower plant seeds. Harvested just after the cotyledon stage when the plants’ possess an active green bud and prophyls or first true leaves

Sorrel Herb – leaf. Used in salad.

Spinach Small, tender leaves. Dark green in color.

Sprouts Alfalfa, garlic. Seeds or beans that have been sprouted.

Watercress Most commonly used as a garnish, also excellent in salads. Small, dark green oval leaves with a pungent, peppery flavor. Remove thick stems before adding to salads

Edible Flowers Includes basil, carnation, cornflower, dandelion, clover, and English daisy, amongst many others.

Bound Salads

Description: Salad whose ingredients are held together by a thick emulsion or dressing

Guidelines: Cooked ingredient must be cooled thoroughly before being mixed with mayonnaise, and should be kept chilled thereafter. Potatoes should be cooked whole, then peeled and cut. Crisp vegetables should be added for texture.

Procedure: Ingredients to be cooked should be cooked thoroughly, but not over-cooked. Bland ingredients may be marinated before blending. Make sure ingredients are well drained to avoid thinning dressing. Fold dressing in gently. Serve with a scoop and garnish.

Example: Potato salad, chicken salad

Why not to overcook pasta/grains when they are used in salads: could asborb moisture, swell and become mushy.

Vegetable Salads
Description: Salads whose main ingredients are vegetables other than lettuce of leafy greens

Guidelines: Neat, accurate cutting of vegetables is paramount. Cut vegetables as close as possible to service. Cooked vegetables should be firm and crisp. After cooking, vegetables should be thoroughly drained and chilled.

Procedure: Fabricate vegetables. Cook firm, if desired, or marinade. Drain well. Mix gently.

Example: Coleslaw, tomato and cucumber salad, bean salads

Why beans shouldn’t sit in dressings for long period of time:

Fruits Salads
Description: Salads where main ingredients are fruit

Guidelines: Are usually arranged opposed to mixed, because most fruits bruise. Less attractive fruits should be placed at bottom. Dip fruits which discolor in an acid, such as lemon juice. Should not be held.

Procedure: Fabricate fruits, arrange carefully. Serve immediately.

Example: Waldorf salad, fruit chantilly

Crouton: small piece of sautéed or re-baked bread,
often cubed and seasoned, that is used to add
texture and flavor to salads.

Pros and Cons
Pro – saves money
Con – must have leftover or extra bread
Pro – saves time
Con – pre-seasoned and cooked, can’t flavor as wanted

Methods for making croutons: can be coated in oil or butter,
seasoned, and baked or Sautéed in olive or vegetable oil

Things added to salads in place of croutons:
whole grains, artichokes, beans, edamame, seeds, fruit

Specific food-handling practices :
Wash hands, wear gloves, keep hair up and
wear hair net, keep TCS products out of danger zone

Egg: oval shaped cell laid by female birds

Other birds eggs used:
duck, ostrich, quail, goose, turkey

Eggs diagram (starting on left, going clockwise):
shell, think white, yolk, air cell, thick white, chalazae

Shell – fragile, thin and porous, which allows
odor and flavor to be absorbed by the egg,
as well as allowing moisture loss
Yolk – high in fat and protein, contains iron and vitamin,
color varies from light to dark yellow, depending if the diet
of the chicken contains cholesterol (average 230 mg)
White – mainly albumin protein, also contains sulfur,
it has two parts: a thick part which surrounds and
cushions the yolk and a thin, watery part around that,
it is clear and soluble when raw, white and firm when coagulated,
contains water and negligible amounts of fat

Calories – 60 calories (large egg)
Essential nutrients – supply all essential amino acids
Gram of protein – 12.6 g (per 100 g)
Good source of :
Vitamin A, riboflavin, folic acid, iron, calcium, potassium

3 examples of different birds eggs used

Eggs inspected for: wholesomeness

Graded by: USDA
Indication of: quality and wholesomeness (fit for consumption)

Shell – smooth, unblemished
White – firm and compact
Yolk – firm, high, bright color
Spread – compact

Shell – smooth, unblemished
White – looser
Yolk – medium height
Spread – thin, white a little larger

Shell – slightly stained, abnormal shape
White – runny
Yolk – low
Spread – very loose

Egg Grades

Receiving eggs
45 degrees or lower on truck
USDA inspection stamp, USDA quality grade and size
Packing date, expiration date, 5 weeks after laid
Clean, not dirty
Check for cracks

Storing eggs
Proper storage
Keeping at 36 degrees, 70-80% humidity
Keeping away from strong odors/flavors
Leave in carton, on lowest shelf

Foods that should not be stored near fresh eggs: Onions, garlic

Minimum Weight per 12 eggs (ounces)
Jumbo – 30
Extra large – 27
Large – 24
Medium – 21
Small – 18
Peewee – 15

Market Forms
Organic – poultry feed organic feed, have access to the outdoors, have no cages, and are not given antibiotics
Free-range – poultry has access to outdoors
Cage free – poultry is not placed in cages
Vegetarian – poultry is not fed animal byproducts
Omega 3 – poultry diet increases presence of omega-3 in eggs
Shell color – Can be white, brown, and speckled

Form Types Uses

Fresh Loose eggs360 = 1 case Breakfast cookery, baking

Frozen Whole, whites, yolks Scrambled, omelets
French toast, sauces that requires
uncooked eggs, used in bakeries

Dried Whole, yolk, white Meringues, baking

Pasteurized Become more popular Baking, Cooking

Liquid Egg Pasteurized Convenient for baking scrambled

Egg Substitutes Egg beaters, etc Low cholesterol diets,

Low calories
Egg Safety

Major safety issue: salmonella

USDA guidelines on pasteurizing eggs:
140 degrees F at 3.5 minutes

Egg dishes should be held below:
41 degrees F
Above: 140 degrees F

Lightly cooked dishes calling for raw eggs should use:

Avoid pooling large amount of raw eggs, instead:
cook to order, or pool in small batches for immediate cooking

Type Temperature Time
Scrambled 250 1 min
Poached 160-180 5 min
Soft-boiled 185 – 205 7 min
Sunnyside 250 7 min on surface, 4 covered
Over-easy 250 3 min on one side, 2 on other

Equipment/work area should be handled after coming into contact w/ raw eggs: wash with proper cleanser and sanitized

Should you reuse a container that has held raw eggs for another batch?: only after proper washing and sanitizing

#1 rule for cooking eggs: do not used high heat

Coagulation: the cooking of proteins

Coagulation temperatures (F):
Whole eggs, beaten – 156
Whites – 140 – 149
Yolks – 144 – 158
Custard (whole eggs plus liquid) – 175 – 185

Signs of overcooked egg dishes
Flavor affected

Moist heat methods for eggs
Simmered in the shell
Description: eggs cooked in water in shell

Method 1:
Bring eggs to room temperature by removing from cooler
1 hour early or placing in warm water for 5 minutes
Boil water. Add eggs. Reduce water to a simmer
Simmer soft cooked (3-4min), medium cooked (5-7min),
or hard cooked (12-15min)
Drain immediately and rinse under cold water

Method 2:
Place eggs in saucepan. Cover with cold water
Bring water to boil. Reduce to summer
Simmer soft cooked (1min), medium cooked (3-5min),
or hard cooked (10min)

Method 3 (for hard-cooked eggs only):
Place eggs in saucepan. Cover with cold water
Bring water to boil
Immediately remove from heat
Cover and let stand 20 minutes

Correct name: Hard boiled or hard-cooked and why?:
Hard-cooked eggs, eggs should not be cooked at 212 degrees

Why are hard-cooked eggs sometimes difficult to peel?:
very fresh eggs were used, store eggs several days before using

Standards of hard-cooked eggs:
Even coagulated whites and yolks
Glossy, firm whites that are tender
No dark color on outside of yolk
Pleasing flavor

Poached Eggs
Description: eggs cooked in water, out of the shell

Method: Use AA eggs whenever possible.
Add 1tsp. salt and 2 tsp. vinegar per quart of water
Bring water to a simmer
Break eggs one at a time into a dish
Slide against edge of pan into water
Simmer 3-5 minutes, until whites are coagulated.
Yolks should still be soft.
Remove with slotted spoon
For immediate service, drain well, trim edges.
To hold, plunge in cold water. Reheat briefly in hot water

Advantages to using vinegar:
aides in coagulation of whites
Disadvantages: whites may be duller and tougher
Conclusion: use vinegar for old and low grade eggs

Advantages to using salt:
raises boiling point, ensuring water will be hotter
Disadvantages: water may boil too quickly,
or may be too salty
Conclusion: use salt sparingly

Standards of poached eggs:
Bright, shiny appearance
Compact round shape
Firm, tender whites
Warm liquid yolks

Dry Heat Methods

Fried Eggs
Description: cooked using heat in pan
Method: use AA eggs is possible.
Add 1/8” of fat and set sauté pan over moderate heat,
preheat griddle to 325°, add fat
Break eggs into dish
When fat is hot enough so that drop of water sizzles,
slide eggs onto surface
Reduce heat and cook eggs to order

Sunny side up – white, soft, and cooked through,
yolk hot and soft, cook slowly without flipping
Basted – egg has been fried in oil
Over easy – fry and flip, cook until yolk is warm
Over medium – fry and flip, cook until yolk begins to set
Over hard – fry and flip, cook until yolk is set

Standards of fried eggs:
White, shiny, uniformly set and tender, not brown,
blistered or crispy
Yolk cooked to desired doneness, sunny side up,
Yellow and round. Compact and light

Shirred Eggs
Description: eggs that resemble fried, except they are
baked in serving dishes

Preheat oven to 350°
Butter individual portion casseroles or baking dishes
Break eggs into dish
Set over moderate heat until coagulated
Place in oven
Cook to desired doneness and serve directly

Scrambled eggs
Description: eggs beaten in a bowl, poured into a pan
over moderate heat, stir as they begin to coagulate

Break eggs into stainless steel bowl. Season. Do not use aluminum
If desired, add a small amount of milk or cream
Heat butter. Use a small sauté pan, large skillet,
or for large quantities, steam kettle or tilting skillet
When water sizzles, pour in eggs
Cook over low heat, stirring gently, and lifting cooked egg. Do not brown
When eggs are set but moist, remove from heat

French Omelet
Description: classic omelet preparation –
creates a cooked egg “cakelet”

Beat 2 or 3 eggs in a small bowl, just until mixed.
Do not whip. Season with salt and pepper. If desired,
1tbs. of water may be added to make lighter.
Place omelet pan over high heat.
When hot, coat pan with 1 tbsp. clarified butter.
Add eggs. They should begin to coagulate around edges and on bottom.
With opposite hand, shake pan back and forth.
At the same time, stir with bottom side of a fork.
Stop shaking when eggs are just set.
Tilt pan so omelet slides across.
Fill, if desired, fold sides over center.
Tilt omelet out of pan.

American Omelet
Description: more dense, not as fluffy as French, usually stuffed

Beat 2 or 3 eggs in a small bowl just until mixed.
Do not whip. Season with salt and pepper. If desired,
1 tbsp. of water may be added.
Place omelet pan over low heat.
When heated, coat pan with clarified butter.
Add eggs. As egg sets, lift with spatula and allow
uncooked egg to run under. Do not stir.
Fill, if desired. Fold sides over center.

French Omelet vs. American Omelet
Heat – high vs. low
Ease of making – requires skill vs. easy
Time to prepare – quick vs. slow
Texture – light and delicate vs. dense

Condition an omelet pan:
Rub a clean pan with a thin layer of vegetable oil.
Set over moderately high heat until very hot (not smoking).
Remove from heat and let cool.
To clean, rub with salt. Wipe with a clean towel

Description: flat omelet mixed, as opposed to filled, with ingredients

Baked in oven, use precooked ingredients
Cook about 15 minutes at 350

Food safety and custards: do not heat higher than 185
2 types of custard
Sitrred (pourable), savory
Baked (sweet)

Reason custards curdle: too high of a temperature

Breakfast Meats

Description: cured, smoked pork product, available in slabs and pre-sliced, market forms – layout, sliced, slab, slice yourself

Preparation: cook over low heat

Ham/Canadian Bacon
Description: prepared pork shanks or loin (Canadian), Canadian bacon – loin meat rolled and cured like ham

Preparation: as breakfast ham is usually always precooked, simply heat and brown slightly on a griddle or under a broiler

Description: fresh pork which has been ground, seasoned, and stiffed into casings, or shaped into patties, bulk - sausage

Preparation: as with bacon, cook partially in an oven and finish a la minute on a griddle

Breakfast Breads

Description: griddlecakes or hot cakes made with a pourable batter

Preparation: Batter may be prepared the night before
Sift together dry ingredients.
Combine liquid ingredients.
Add liquid ingredients to dry mix until dry ingredients have been moistened.
Beat egg whites soft. Fold into batter,
Cook per instructions.

Description: richer, thicker batter than pancakes, more fat, less liquid, more sugar

Preparation: Batter may be prepared the night before
Sift dry ingredients
Combine liquid ingredients
Mix together until uniform. Do not over mix
Ladle portions onto greased, preheated (375°) griddle
Cook until surface is dry and bubble and underside is golden brown. Turn

French Toast
Description: slices of bread dipped in a batter of eggs, milk, sugar, and flavoring

Prepare egg mixture
Submerge bread slices until thoroughly moistened
Place on greased, pre-heated griddle
Cook until lightly golden and no longer soggy

Description: unleavened pancake, sweeter, lighter, very thin, batter is thinner

Whisk together flour, salt, and eggs, gradually mix in milk, mix until smooth
Strain through a sieve, whisk in browned butter
Cover with plastic wrap and allow at rest at room temperature 30 minutes
Heat a crepe pan over moderate heat, oil lightly
Pour about 3 tbs. batter to pan, swirl to coat bottom
Cook until edges are brown and bottom is golden, flip

Description: finished crepe product, stuffed and cooked, usually with cheese

Prepare crepes
Fill and cook

Breakfast Cereals

Hot Cereals
Whole, cracked of flaked
Examples: oatmeal, cracked wheat
Preparation: hot liquid may be added
Examples: farina, grits
Preparation: stirred slowly into salted, boiling water/liquid
Cold Cereals
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