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Canadian History 1914-1929
Transcript of Canadian History 1914-1929
Causes of WW1
1. Canada had no control over our foreign policy but we began to split from Britain with the creation of Department of Foreign Affairs after the Alaskan Boundary Dispute.
The Schleiffan Plan, War on the Home Front, and The War Measures Act
Victory Bonds, Winnipeg General Strike, and Person's Case.
Victory Bonds were sold by the government as a way to finance the war. People would buy them and could cash them in after the war to get all their money back plus 1% interest (a dollar). Many bought them because of peer pressure and nationalism.
Conscription and the Spanish Flu
Prime Minister Borden believed at first that conscription was a bad idea. After seeing war up front, he believed it was "the duty of Canadians to fight". Causalities were high therefore conscription was enforced. It meant that people were picked to fight ( instead of volunteering) and had to serve for a certain amount of years in the army.
Prohibition and The Rise of the Stock Market
In Canada in the 1920's it was illegal to consume alcohol but not to make it. The idea was to prevent people from running their lives and families with alcohol. However, because people could make alcohol, they would sell it through the black market and people would drink it. Another way that Canadians could get away with having alcohol would be bribing their doctor to prescribe it to them (which was technically legal). Some became rich because of prohibition since they could make/sell their booze for higher than it was worth.
2. U.s. and Canada were fighting over the Klondike region after gold was found. They decided to settle things with an International Tribunal which ended with British Judge Lord Alverstone siding with America (who claimed ownership of Skagway and taxed products moving through port). The judge only sided with America because he anticipated a war with Germany and didn't want the U.S to side with the Germans.
- People loved their countries and wanted to prove they were the best.
- Everyone wanted to take over, so it was a race for colonies in Africa.
- England, Russia, and France teamed up (Triple Entente) against Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy (Triple Alliance).
- Armies/Navies were built up because violence was believed to solve problems.
4.Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the Prince of Austro-Hungary seen to the upper left) was assassinated in Bosnia where citizens didn't want to be apart of Austro-Hungary anymore. The killers fleed to Serbia with other Bosnians. Russia supported Serbia while Germany supported Austria (all other countries were brought in based on the alliance system).War was declared so Germany came up with the Schleiffan plan so they wouldn't have to fight France (West) and Russia (East) at the same time.
Germany tried to travel through Belgium to attack France by surprise but the General asked Belgium's King if this was okay and he told France then sent his Belgian army to also fight the Germans. The German army tried to split into five different groups but mis-communication, confusion, lost contact, etc. contributed to the plan failing. Russia's army showed up sooner then expected and what's left of the German soldiers had to go fight them as well. Plan 17 (made by the French) was to rush forward and face Germany head on which was also unsuccessful.
Factories began to make weapons, airplane parts, submarines/ships, uniforms, and medical supplies. Women entered the workforce as nurses, factory workers, and farmers. Many worked overtime with no pay. Profiteering entailed more supplies that were cheaply made which effected soldiers.
The War Measures Act was passed by the government to give it power to arrest and detain "Enemy Aliens" under suspicion of treason. Immigrants were separated from their families and forced to work in camps even though no evidence of a threat was found. Immigrants were so afraid of persecution that they would change their names. (Berlin, Ontario was changed to Kitchener, Ontario.)
Winnipeg General Strike happened in 1919 because of low wages and high prices so people couldn't afford to live and Veterans weren't guaranteed jobs when they got back, so people wanted higher wages, better jobs and living conditions. The Federal government beat, arrested, and killed people which ended the strike, but the strike resulted in freedom of speech and democratic socialism.
A verdict by Emily Murphy (the first female judge in Canada), was challenged by a lawyer on the grounds that in the eye of the law women weren't considered people. She and four other prominent suffragists (the "Famous Five") petitioned for Canada to recognize women as 'persons' in the law and appoint a female senator. The Supreme Court of Canada decided women weren't 'persons' who could hold public office as senators. In 1929, the British Privy Council reversed this decision.
Battle of Ypres in April of 1915 was significant because it was the first time that chlorine gas was used to attack (by Germany). Canadians peed on cloths and held them on their faces to counter the gas.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge is a historical battle won by Canada in 1917. More German prisoners were captured than the entire American army.
The 'Hundred Days' was the final offensive in 1918 which forced Germany to retreat and seek peace. This resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference.
The Spanish Flu was a deadly influenza virus (the swine flu) that killed many in Europe. Soldiers carried it over to Canada and spread the epidemic. People wore masks in public because the virus could kill you within two days of getting it. Symptoms were hardly noticeable (head ache, upset stomach, etc.), and often those who showed signs of the flu were quarantined in their house. The virus is linked to the war because it never would have been brought over to Canada if not for returning soldiers.
Canadians began to invest in stocks as the popularity of credit reached new economic levels. Citizens could make a quick and easy profit buying low and then selling high later. It was also good for company owners because it meant that if their business went down it wouldn't be their money lost. They also get a significant amount of money free of interest that they could use however they pleased. It was usually a smart investment for stock buyers because they would get money for doing nothing.