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Ryan Yoder

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Transcript of ch.19industrualization&nationalism-worldhistoryb

ch. 19 industrialization & nationalism Industrial Revolution section 1: pg.614 During the late 18th century, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. An agrarian revolution and industrialization caused a shift from an economy based on farming/handcrafts to an economy based on manufacturing by machines in factories. Section Overview 1780's saw the beginning of the
I.R. in Great Britain. There are
several factors as to why it began
in Great Britain: 1. AGRARIAN REVOLUTION expansion of farmland, good weather, improved transportation, and
new crops (potato) increased food supply
more people could be feed at ___________ prices with _________ labor
ordinary people could use their income to buy manufactured goods 2. POPULATION GROWTH increase in food supply = population growth
(laws fenced off common lands)
forced peasants to move to towns
large supply of labor for factories 3. READY SUPPLY OF MONEY money ready to invest in CAPITAL
- machines and factories
ENTREPRENEURS found ways to make money in Laissez Faire market
market ruled by ___________ & _____________ with little government control over the industries 4. 5. NATURAL RESOURCES OUTLET FOR GOODS turn to page 615 in textbook
rivers provided water power for factories- transportation of raw/finished goods
abundant supply of coal and iron ore (essential in manufacturing process)
colonial empire provided markets for British manufactured products
British ships could transport goods anywhere around the world
demand for cotton cloth led to British manufactures to look for
ways to increase production 1750 - 5.7 million/21% urban
1851 - 16.7 million/51% urban Changes Cotton Production (1) Coal & Iron Industries (2) New Factories (3) Railroads (4) Cotton cloth 2 step process
1) spinners made cotton thread from raw cotton
2) weavers wove the cotton thread into cloth looms
(individuals spun the thread and then wove the cloth in their rural cottages) ADVANCEMENTS 1) "Flying shuttle" made weaving faster
2) "Spinning Jenny"
produced thread faster
than it could be used Flying shuttle for a handloom - the rollers underneath helped the weaver send it flying across the wide blanket looms. 3) "Waterpowered Loom"
allowed weaving cloth to catch up
with spinning thread
Edmund Cartwright (1787)
4) Steam Engine
James Watt (1782)
made changes so it could drive machinery
steam power used to spin and weave cotton
soon found all over England b/c they were
by coal and not water By the 1800's cotton cloth was Britain's most valuable product. fuel of the steam engine was COAL
- coal seemed to be an unlimited resource and expanded production
process of producing iron had not changed since the Middle Ages
Henry Cort came up with the PUDDLING process to produced higher quality iron
(Process of where coke, derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in
crude iron, called pig iron, to produce high quality iron)
used to build TRAINS & other machines
created new labor force
owners wanted to maximize their machines
working around the clock for max output
regular hours/repetative tasks
strict rules/punishments
(espically to children) first steam locomotive built in 1804
first line pulled 10 tons of ore /70 people at 5 mph
first successful flanged-wheel locomotive
(ran on top of the rails instead of in sucken tracks)
Manchester (cotton rich) - Liverpool (port city) ROCKET - speeds of 16 mph to do the job
1840: 2,000 miles and by 1850: 6,000 miles RESULTS OF RAILROAD ripple effect in the economy
created jobs for farm labor/peasants
less expensive transportation = lower prices on goods
created larger markets for products
higher sales = more factories/machinery
owners reinvest in new equipment
*this type of economic growth became the basic feature of
the new industrial economy*
SOCIAL IMPACT IN EUROPE Industrial Revolution during the first half of
the 18th century created two new social classes:
1) industrial middle class 2) industrial working class Population/Urban Growth 1750 - 140 million
1850 - 266 million why? death rates declined
better fed people
more resistant to disease
famine seemed to dissappear IRISH POTATO FAMINE 1841 - 1851 main source of food
fungus infected potato from 1845-1848
population dropped from 8.2 million to 6.5 million
most of Ireland population emigrated
British government did little to help suffering
fueled Irish resentment toward British
- example IRA (Irish Republic Army)
1800: 1 million and by 1850: 2.5 million
horrible living conditions Industrial Middle Class Industrial Working Class INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
economic system based on industrial production
commerical capitalism (based on trade)
BOURGEOIS or middle class person
- merchants, officials, artisans, lawyers, banking
people who built the factories, bought machines, and
developed the markets
initiative, vision, ambition, and greed
"Getting of money... is the main business of the life of men"
worked 12 to 16 hours a day; 6 days a week
conditions were harsh, dangerous, cramped
- EX: MINES - cave ins, explosions, gas fumes "bad air", constant dampness
that led to workers' deformed bodies and ruined lungs
- EX: COTTON MILLS - dirty, dusty, dangerous, unhealthy....main employees were
women and children...made half of what men did...women
were forced to take second rate jobs
SOCIALISM difficulty adjusting to new life
long hours, low pay, city life
reform wanted end to capitalism usually the form of government owns and controls
some of the means of production such as the
factories and utilities. DENTIFIED AS PART OF A COMMUNITY DEFINED BY A DISTINCTIVE LANGUAGE, COMMON INSTITUTE, AND CUSTOMS. MARX utopian socialist robert OWEN human would show natural goodness if they lived
in a cooperative environment EX: New Harmony, Indiana in 1820's
failed b/c not e/o was as committed
as Owen Conservatism theory based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability characteristics organized religion
disliked revolutions
unwilling to accept demands from people who wanted individual rights/rep. governments PRINCIPLE OF intervention great powers had the right to send armies in order to
restore legitimate monarches to their thrones
disagreed with & believed they should not interfere in internal
affairs of other states
used military force to crush revolutions
CHANGE Liberalism Nationalism threatened conservative
EX: Bill of Rights
2) religious toleration
3) peaceful opposition
4) representative assembly
5) rule by constitution
6) only men of property could vote
7) tied to the middle class 1) part of comm. defined by language/customs
2) community called a NATION
3) nationality should have their own governments
EX: German State/Hungarian State
4) freedom was only possible if the people ruled
5) No state should attempt to dominate one
overthrew govt in 1848
election by universal male sufferage (means?)
new constitution & set up new govt called the
2nd Republic
Napoleon Bonaparte elected president

38 independent German states (Confederation)
consitution (failed)
parlimentary govt (failed)
direct elections (failed)

revolution was put down by the austrian empire by 1849

MARCH toward NATIONALISM even though the revolutions failed
the forces of nationalism and liberalism remained powerful. italy & germany were unified, G.B & France became more liberal, and Austria & Russia remained authoritarian. CRIMEAN WAR long term struggle b/t RUSSIA
WHY? wanted area in the Balkans in
order to have a warm water port
EUROPE RUSSIA DARDANELLES control of the Med. Sea & the
black sea would allow them
to become a major
power of the eastern
Europe (challenge
Britain for Med. Sea Russia invaded the Balkans and in response
the Ottoman Empire/Britain/France declared
war on Russia
war was poorly fought and poorly planned
heavy losses forced the Russians to seek peace
Treaty of Paris signed in 1856
RESULTS 1. make up of Europe broke apart
2. Russia/Austria now enemies
3. Russia withdrew from European affairs
4. Austria had no "great power" alliances
5. Opened door for unification
parliment passed bill to increase # of male voters
increase in Irish nationalism
stability helped by economic success
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
her time was known as the Victorian Age
major problem - ethnic groups
lost power in loss to Prussia
created govt called Austro-Hungarian
each had their own laws/governing bodies
vienna/budapest PROBLEMS
4 million in South
1 million in North
based on cotton/plantations
S.C. seceded from the Union
in 1860
confederate states were formed
abolitionist movement
Union forces led by Lincoln
civil war fought b/t 1861-1865
prevails in the U.S.

20 CHAPTER MASS SOCIETY & DEMOCRACY Industrial Prosperity First Industrial Rev v. Second Industrial Rev textiles
coal steel
electricity steel was used in the building of
lighter, smaller, and faster machines
and engines. easily converted to other forms of
energy such as heat, light and motion.
moved easily through space (wires)
hydroelectric power by 1910
modern day THREE GEORGE DAM http://www.pbs.org/itvs/greatwall/dam1.html THOMAS EDISON patented the first commercialy pratctical incandescent light bulb
with Joseph Swan of Great Britain
improved upon others findings and made significant improvements
Edison returned to a CARBON filament
- first lightbulb lasted 40 hours
in 1878 with the help of financiers (JP Morgan) Edison fromed the Edison Light Company in NYC
"We will make electricity so cheap that
only the rich will burn candles" After it took Thomas Edison 2000 tries to invent the light bulb, a young reporter asked him how it felt to fail so many times. "I never failed once," Edison said. "It just happened to be a 2000-step process." revolution in Alexander Graham Bell Guglielmo Marconi - invented the telephone in 1876
- sent first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901
COMMUNICATION/ELECTRICITY/ENGINES Subway System Transportation Factories - in European cities by the 1880's
- remain open for 24 hours
- airplane (Wright brothers) & automobile (Ford)
henry FORD early cars were expensive
introduced the assembly line in 1908
able to mass produce the Model - T
no longer transportation centered on rail lines & streetcars
suburbs expanded & new roads were built
NEW patterns increase in production allowed for increase in sales
prices lowered b/c of reduced transportation costs
wages in workers increased
new customers goods
1) clocks
2) bicycles
3) electric lights
4) typewriters

advanced ag countries Great Britain, Belgium, France, Germany,
Holland, & northern Italy southern Italy, Spain, Portugal, Russia
Balkans, & Austro-Hungarian Empire The goal of setting up the Ford Motor Company of Brazil was two-fold: to supply Ford’s internal demand for rubber as well as to provide a better way of life for the Brazilians who lived and worked on the plantations. An early problem was the Amazon’s heavy rains that washed out the nutrient-rich soil needed for growing the rubber trees. Extensive terracing was needed to prevent flooding on the cleared land. Also, drought during the dry season and diseases and insects that attacked the trees. Among the attackers were a deadly leaf fungus and pests such as sauva ants, lace bugs, red spiders, and leaf caterpillars. The early troubles of Fordlandia partly had to do with the fact that the plantation was under the supervision of Ford factory-trained men rather than horticultural specialists. working class THE TRANSITION to industrialized society very difficult for workers
WHY? REFORM reformers believed captialism was heartless and they wanted a
new type of society. some were willing to work within the system while others were more radical. MARX THEORY wrote the COMMUNIST MANIFESTO in 1848
- wrote in response to the horrible conditions of
the industrial factories (blame?)
all of world history was a "history of class struggles"
oppressor & oppressed have always "stood in constant oppostition to one another"
- OPPRESSORS: owned land, raw materials, money = means of production
> This gave them control over the government
- OPPRESSED: owned nothing and depended on the oppressors
WHAT HE SAW 1. 2 classes of his time
a) BOURGEOISIE: middle class (oppressors)
b) PROLETARIAT: working class (oppressed)
2. Believed a revolution was coming and a DICTATORSHIP would be
set up by the proletariat
a) small group of people had absolute power
b) would organize the means of production
3. Final revolution = a classless society b/c of the abolishment of economic
SOCIALIST PARTY German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
- emerged in 1875
- found their way into German Parliment
- started passing policies to improve workers conditions
- grew to the largest party by 1912
Party divisions
- major goal?
- violent revolution v. revisionists
improve working conditions, organize workers, & come
together in collective bargaining agreements
> CBA: union representatives neg. w/ management over
wages and hours worked
right to strike
> union calls for members to stop working to put
pressure on management to meet demands of
higher wages
what do trade union's look like today?
setting the stage for
WWI 1. Western Europe 2. Central/Eastern Europe 3. United States 4. Intenational Rivalries Reasons for expansion of political democracy
1) universal male sufferage
2) P.M. responsible to pop. elected legislative body
3) mass political parties formed GREAT BRITAIN
2 party parlimentary system (Liberals & Conservatives)
Workers rights esbalished (Liberal Party)
- Labour Party emerged so Liberal Party passed more laws
to keep workers (unemployment & old age pensions)
Third Republic established rule
new govt: president & two houses
Weakness = dependence on coalition of parties

1870 emeraged as united state
rift b/t SOUTH (poverty strickened) & NORTH (industrialized)
still weak govt by 1912
continued dominance of old traditional govts GERMANY
2 house leg. set up in 1871: lower (voters) & upper (emperor)
- Upper controled: armed forces/foreign policy
Otto von Bismark - tried to keep Germany from becoming a democracy
William II - turned Germany into the strongest military/industrual power

dual monarch created in 1870's
Austria palriment did not work, but Hungary sided worked

Nicholas II (1894) worked to preserve the absolute power of czars
became major producer of steel (what came with that?)
Bloody Sunday
- 1905 in St. Petersburg workers went to present a petition of grievenaces to
the cazr
- troopers opened fire on the peaceful demonstration killing hundreds
- caused for thousands of workers to go on stike across Russia
reconstruction period
- 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments passed
1870 - 1914 US became an industrial power
shifted from farm based - industrial economy
-Carnegie Steel Company
by 1900's US richest nation TRIPLE ALLIANCE
Germany, Austria - Hungary, Italy
Who is responsible?
Bismark knew they had upset the balance structure of Euorpe
feared France, signed separate treaty with Russia, & good terms with G.B.
William II Takes over
fires Bismark and drops treaty with Russia
France signs treaty with Russia right away (result?)
- hostile neighbor on each side of Germany
France, Russia, and Great Britain divided
Europe in
two dominio effect 1. Mutual Defense Alliances
2. Imperialism
3. Militarism
4. Nationalism
5. Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
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