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Otzi: The Iceman

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steven st. onge

on 17 December 2014

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Transcript of Otzi: The Iceman

Otzi: The Iceman
Who is this Man?
What do you think happened to this man?
Use evidence to support your conclusion!!!

This was the same guy except 5300 Years Earlier!
What Happened to Him!?!?
Otzi was found in 1991 in the Otzel Alps
Carbon Dating puts him to around 3300 BCE
Otzi is a wet mummy
Around 45 years old
5'3" tall and 110lbs
Covered in over 50 tattoos
Your Goal
In your groups, you will move to each station
First you will identify what the object is that Otzi left behind
Make sure you put it in the correct station
Second you will draw a conclusion about what this item says about Otzi
You have 3 minutes at each station
Say Hello to Otzi
Station # 1
The bearskin cap was found near the Otzi’s head.
Like nearly all the clothing items, it was made of several hide (animal skin) strips stitched together.
On the lower edge, two leather straps were attached, which were tied under the chin to keep the cap in place.

Station 2
Ötzi’s shoes are the oldest of their kind in the world. The shoes are of a sophisticated design and consist of an inner and outer part.
The inner shoe is composed of grass netting. Its purpose was to hold hay in place which kept his feet warm.
The outer part is made of deerskin.
Experiments with reconstructed shoes have shown that the leather strip actually does prevent slipping on rocky ground. The shoes are surprisingly warm and comfortable.
The most important item of the Iceman’s equipment is his copper-bladed axe.
The carefully smoothed wooden handle is around 2 feet. The 9.5 cm blade is trapezoidal in shape and made of almost pure copper.
Archaeological experiments have shown that the copper axe was an ideal tool for cutting down trees.
The axe was also a symbol of rank. In the period around 3000 years BC, copper axes were a status symbol and must have been cherished as weapons.
The 13 cm-long dagger consists of a small triangular flint blade and an ash wood handle.
The blade was inserted deep into the wooden handle and bound with animal sinews (muscle tissue).
The flint used for the blade came from quarries in the Lessini Mountains north of Italy.
It was a coveted trade item during the late Neolithic period (Stone Age) in central Europe due to its outstanding quality.
Station 3
Station 4
Station 5
Station 6
Station 7
Station 8
Station 9
The Iceman carried a 6ft-long bow stave on his journey. When he arrived at the place of his death, he evidently leaned it against a rock, where it was found still upright thousands of years later.
The bow was still unfinished, and there was no sign of a bowstring
Trials with reconstructed bows of this type have shown that wild animals can easily be taken down with considerable accuracy from a distance of 30–50 m.
Close examination of the bow stave revealed that it was covered in blood.
Before he died, the Iceman carefully placed his quiver on a stone slab.
Researchers were astonished when, upon opening the quiver, they found only two finished arrows along with a dozen rough arrow shafts.
The Iceman also carried a basic first-aid kit.
His had two hide strips, on with lumps of the birch polypore fungus (a mushroom) attached to it.
Right up until the 20th century such bracket fungi were used for many medicinal purposes.
The birch polypore is known to have antibiotic and styptic effects. Furthermore, toxic oils in bracket fungi are effective against the intestinal parasites that Ötzi himself suffered from. Were these curative properties already known in the Neolithic period?
The roughly meshed net made of tree-bast string was probably used for catching birds and rabbits.

Rabbits would be driven into the net before being clubbed to death.
The disc made of white marble has a hole in the middle through which a hide strip was threaded.

Similar tassels or nooses are still used today in wildfowl hunting.
The two separate leggings, which the Iceman was still wearing when he was discovered, are made of several pieces of domestic goat hide carefully cross-stitched together with animal sinew (muscles).
Two laces were sewn on to each legging so that they could be tied to the belt. At the lower end, deerskin laces where sewn on, which were then tied to the shoes to prevent the leggings from riding up as the Iceman walked.
The leggings show signs of heavy use and frequent repairs.
The Iceman’s belt was made from calf’s leather.
The pouch on the belt was a piece of sewn-on leather. The Iceman used his belt pouch to store various flint tools: a scraper, a drill and a flint flake.
A 7.1 cm bone awl was also found. It could be used for various jobs from sewing to tattooing, or simply as a toothpick.
The belt pouch was filled with tinder fungus. The fungus, part of a prehistoric lighter, contains traces of iron pyrite. When struck against flint, sparks land on a bed of fluffy tinder fungus and can be used to kindle a fire.
Station 10
A retoucheuris a tool used for working flint.
The approximately 12 cm-long pencil-like tool was made from a piece of lime branch which was shaped to a point at one end. In the middle of the branch is a fire-hardened point of a stag’s antler.
This tool is used to resharpen dull edges. Otzi probably used this sharpen his arrowheads and dagger
When the end of the retoucheur became blunt with wear, it could be sharpened like a pencil.
Do Now 12/17/14
Trade your first hypothesis (yesterday's homework) with someone at your table
Highlight each part of RACES
R will be pink
A will be Yellow
C will be Blue
E will be Green
S will be Orange
Do Now -12/18/14
Read scientist's initial theory on why Otzi died
Then based on the artifacts we've research agree or disagree with this theory
Let's finally find out HOW Otzi died!
Body Scan-
Today's Plan 12/18/14
There are three articles for you to read
Each article will give a hypothesis on why Otzi died
One of these articles is wrong
Your goal is to figure out which hypothesis is the most reliable
Station 4
Station 6
Station 7
Station 8
Station 9
Station 10
Station 3
Station 2
Station 5
Full transcript