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Explaining Spatial Patterns of Tourism

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by

Nigel Bassett

on 30 June 2014

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Transcript of Explaining Spatial Patterns of Tourism

Explaining Spatial Patterns
of international Tourism

Global scale
Social reason

90% of world's population live in
Northern Hemisphere ... as 80%
travel in own region, greatest concentration
is in the north.
Concentrated pattern in N.Hemisphere
The countries with the highest levels of human development (HDI) are mostly in Europe & North America.

More people are able to afford international travel and the countries are able to provide tourism services to tourists (e.g. transport, accommodation, attractions, hospitality). These nations typically have a
concentrated pattern
of tourism.

Lowest development levels are in Africa. These nations typically have
dispersed patterns
of international.

Higher develpement encourages
concentration
Lower development encourages
dispersal


Regional Scales
Patterns of international tourism in 2013 can be explained by
social, economic, political and environmental
reasons
Economic factor - Development


The 25 Countries that belong to the European
Schengen Zone
have open borders - visas are not required for member countries & the
tourists have the freedom of movement - this
has increased the
concentration
of tourists.

A
dispersed pattern
is evident in countries that
make getting a visa difficult:

e.g. Turkmenistan - need a guide to get a visa
Angola - restrict illegal workers

Political factor - Accessibility
The growth of low cost airlines has made travel
very affordable in some regions of the world. E.g.
Easy Jet
has made European destinations very cheap and accessible for visitors living and visiting the region. This has caused a
pattern of concentration
.
Easy Jet routes from
London
Encourages concentrated pattern
in Europe
South Africa Airlines
routes from Cape Town
Encourages dispersed pattern in Africa
Economic factor
Transport Infrastructure & acessibility

Transport infrastructure improves accessibility for international travel and encourages a
concentrated pattern
of international tourism.


The road, rail & air infrastructure in Europe is highly developed. This makes travel within Europe very quick and contributes to the
concentrated pattern
of international tourism.

E.g. London to Paris on Eurostar takes 2 hours 16 mins. This encourages people to travel internationally and increased the
concentration
of international tourists. The rail network is Europe is described as dense and highly efficient (highspeed)

E.g in the Region of Africa the rail network is limited and does not link larger numbers of countries together. This encourages a
dispersed pattern



Limited rail connectivity =
dispersed pattern of tourism
e.g. There is no international rail links between Chad and its neighbours & it had just 86 000 visitors in 2012
In South Africa there is a higher level
connectivity and a more
concentrated
pattern
of international tourism

Europe has a population of
over 700 million. Aprox 80% of all
international travel is from within
a region and this helps to create a
pattern of concentration in Europe
Social Factor - Population
Concentration of people
= large market for regional tourism
Sparsely populated countries
= small market for regional tourism
Environmental - Accessibility
Countries which border a large number of other countries , have a larger market to draw international tourists from. This improves the accessibility and encourages the concentration of international tourists

e.g. China is bordered by 14 Asian countries - 57 million international tourists

Naru has no physical neighbours - the least visited country in the world
Do I look like
Mr B?
Summary

Global patterns of concentration and dispersal are caused by a
combination
, of environmental, social, political and economic factors. No one factor is responsible.

The
most
influential factor affecting global patterns is transportation. Without the technology to travel and the infrastructure to allow people to move (e.g. road, rail, airports) there would be minimal international tourism.
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