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Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions

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by

Peter Buck

on 15 February 2011

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Transcript of Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions

Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions Ketones are made from alcohols.The aldehyde can be produced in the form of a carboxlyic acid. If you used ethanol as a typical primary alcohol, you would produce the aldehyde ethanal, CH3CHO. OH H H C Primary Alcohol C O If one of the groups is a hydrogen atom, then you will get an aldehyde. If they are both alkyl groups then you get a ketone.In other words, if you start from a primary alcohol, you will get an aldehyde.Secondary alcohols oxidise to give ketones.


R H R Aldehyde R2C=O + 2 R'OH R2C(OR')2 + H2O (an acetal) Ketones react with alcohol to form an acetal and water.

An acetal is a molecule with 2 single bonded Oxygens such as H2O OH C R R H Secondary Alcohol Oxidized O C R R Ketone Classes of ketones

Ketones are classified into diketones which is two ketones.

Unsaturated ketones are another class of ketones containing alkene and alkyne units.
The most widely used member of this class of compounds is methyl vinyl ketone, CH3C(O)CH=CH2.

Many ketones are Cyclic Ketones. The simplest class has the formula (CH2)nCO. Cyclohexanone, a symmetrical cyclic ketone, is an important intermediate in the production of nylon.

Keto-enol tautomerization
Main article: Enol


Keto-enol tautomerism is another ketone class.Ketones that have at least one alpha-hydrogen, undergo keto-enol tautomerization; the tautomer is an enol. Tautomerization may be catalyzed by both acids and bases. Usually, the keto form is more stable than the enol. This equilibrium allows ketones to be prepared via the hydration of alkynes. Oxidized Aldehydes: Ketones are often engaged in organic reactions. Ketones In organic chemistry, a ketone is a compound with the structure RC(=O)R, where R and R can be a variety of atoms and groups of atoms. It features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms.Acetone is the simplest example of a ketone. Ketones differ from aldehydes in that the carbonyl is placed between two carbons rather than at the end of a carbon skeleton. They are also distinct from other functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amides, which have a carbonyl group bonded to a hetero atom. Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. This functional group, with the structure R-CHO, consists of a carbonyl centre bonded to hydrogen and an R group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry. Many fragrances are aldehydes.
By: Devonne Moore
Molly Demitrack
Ryan Starczewski
Peter Buck
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