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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800
Transcript of Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800
(only 20 ships came back). 1. Catherine de Medici was ruthless in playing off Catholics vs. Protestants. She slaughtered 10,000 Huguenots at a celebration of her daughter's wedding to Henry of Navarre. (Henry IV) 2. Protestants sought help from the English, Dutch, and German Protestants, and Catholics found an alley in the King of Spain. 3. Henry IV eventually issued the Edict of Nantes giving religious freedom to all and Protestant troops fortified towns. 1. Early in his reign French nobles tried to reassert their influence and forced the King to call Estates General (did not meet for 175 years). 2. Cardinal Richeleay helped restore power and prestige to monarchy
A. He was a mercantilism.
B. He ordered the destruction of all fortified castles belonging to nobles. 1. Believed he was representative of God's power on earth, "I am the state", and was a devout Catholic. 2. Reorganized the Army to 400,000 soldiers with loyalty to the king. 3. Appointed indendents to collect taxes, recruit soldiers, and administer royal policy in their provinces. Jean Baptiste Colbert 1. Managed the royal finances, was a mercantilist who wished to increase royal power. B. He reformed the system of collecting taxes. C. Mercantilist who saw that increased trade would make the country more prosperous . The lower classes would pay more taxes. 4. Built palace at Versailles in order to keep an eye on his nobles and it was a safe distance from Paris. I will understand how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication, 1450-1750. Causes of the Thirty Year War 1. Ferdinand II announce that he would no longer tolerate Protestant worship.
Which led to fighting breaking out in German States. 2. Early in the war religion fueled the war.
Later political and territory become more important. 3. Invading armies devastated Germany.
Famine, disease and a population decline occurred. Peace of Westphalia 1. Hapsburg's still remained the most powerful rulers in Germany, 300 small independent states remained. 2. Boundaries were established and remained almost unchanged for over 100 years. Prussia - Hollenzollerns = Germany 1. Frederick William, The Great Communicator saw devastation of their years war, so he built an army to secure his territory. 2. Fredrick William I - doubles his army, always dressed in a military uniform. Had an elite guard of tall men. Never used his army. 3. Fredrick II or Fredrick the Great, put army into action withing months. His army was the most feared in Europe until 1806. Napoleon. Germany - respected military - dressed in uniform. 3. Prussia invaded Saxony only to find themselves against France, Austria, and Russia. 4. France and Great Britain began fighting against North American in 1754 with Britain gaining control of New England. 5. The Peace of Paris (1763 saw Britain gain Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River while Spain acquired Louisiana. 6. The 7 Years War left both France and Great Britain in great debt and trying to get out of this debt would undermine British power in North American and the absolute monarchy in France. Russsia - Romanors 1. Its civilization was based on the values of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Byzantine Empire. 2. Czar Ivan IV came to the throne at age 3 in 1533 and later expanded the empire to include 30 different ethnic peoples speaking 160 languages. 3. Peter the Great assumed the throne in 1689 and set out to westernize Russia. A. He went to western Europe and studied the civilization and later sent the "sons of the nobles". B. He created a central bureaucracy and took the church under his wing. C. He built a capital (palace) at St. Petersburg
which he modeled after Versailles and was a water port. 1) She won support of the noble Russia 1. Its civilization was based on the values of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Byzantine Empire. 2. Czar Ivan IV came to the throne at age 3 in 1533 and later expanded the empire to include 30 different ethnic peoples speaking 160 languages. Austria 1. The Austrian Hapsburg had control of Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary. The problem was that they all spoke different languages. 2. Charles VI had no son to inherit his throne.
The Pragmatic daughter Maria Theresa had right to rule 3. Frederick the "Great" 2nd of Prussia ignored the agreement and seized Silesia which was a valuable territory because of it's large amounts of iron ore and textile industry once Charles died in 1422. War of Austrian Succession 1. 23 Year old Maria went to Hungary adn promised to safeguard their traditional rights. Hungary sent 100,000 troops to fight the Prussians. 2. France and Spain joined the Prussian forces. Great Britain and the Dutch Netherlands sided with Austria. 3. The peace treaty at Aix-La-Chapelle signed in 1748, allowed Frederick the Great to keep Silesia and all the other territories went back to the nations who held them before the war. Balance of Power 1. This balance meant that no one country would dominate Europe, so Alliances were made. 2. Conflicting interests soon led to the 7 years war which was fought on three continents; Europe, Asia, and North America I will know how religion fueled the Thirty Years War. I will know Who was the most powerful
ruler in Germany for over 100 years. I will know Frederick William as the Great Communicator and how his massive army was the most feared in Europe until 1806. Louis XIV A. He was a mercantilist.