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Daily Grammar Practice Introduction

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Laura Nix

on 11 August 2015

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Transcript of Daily Grammar Practice Introduction

Daily Grammar Practice:
Steps to Follow

Step 1: Parts of Speech
On Mondays, we will break down the parts of speech in each sentence. For those of you who might not remember, let's review what we are looking for!

Step 2 -
Step 3
Wednesdays - Clauses and Sentence Types
Final Step
A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.
Verbs
Verbs are used to show the action in a
sentence. You can also use verbs to help make a statement.

You will need to know three types:
1. action - shows the action in sentence (for example, "He told a lie.")

2. linking - links two words together
Can include: is, be, am, are, was, were,
been, being, appear, become, feel, grow,
look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay,
taste, etc.
(for example, "I feel tired.")

3. helping - helps an action or linking verb
If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are helping. If it has three verb, the first two are helping. And etc. (for example, "I am going out later."

Pronouns
Pronouns take the place of a noun.
There are six types of pronouns:
1. Personal - Singular or plural (I, you, he, she, they,
etc.)
2. Reflexive - will end in "self" (myself, yourself, etc.)
3. Relative - (start dependent clauses)
4. Interrogative - ask: which? whose? what? etc.
5. Demonstrative - this, that, these, those
6. Indefinite - few, some, many, somebody
(not specific to a definite person or thing)
Adverbs
Adverbs can modify adjectives (really tall), verbs (worked hard) , or other adverbs (quite slowly).

They expand your words to explain "how?", "when?", "where?", and "to what extent?".

"Not" will always be an adverb when you find it in a sentence.

Many adverbs end in "-ly".
Adjectives
Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.

They tell "which one?", "how many?", and what kind?"

Also included are articles: "a", "an", & "the".

A proper adjective is a proper noun used as an adjective, as in "Swiss cheese, Martian landscape, Victorian style, etc.
Prepositions
Prepositions show relationships between words in the sentence.
Infinitives
Infinitives can act like a noun,
adjective, or adverb, but they are
reasonably easy to spot.

All infinitives will include "to + a verb.

For example:
to eat, to read, to sing, to laugh, to laugh,
to hear, to shout, to give, etc.
Conjunctions
Conjunctions join together words, phrases, and clauses.

There are three types:
1. Coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (you can
remember this by thinking "F-A-N-B-O-Y-S")

2. Subordinating conjunctions
- start dependent clauses (so must be
followed by subject and verb)
- include: after, since, before, while, because
although, so that, if, when, whenever, as,
even though, until, unless, as if, etc.

3. Correlative conjunctions
- include: not only/but also, neither/nor,
either/or, & both/and
Participles
Participles are verbs that act like adjectives.

These can also end in "-ing", or can also end in "-ed" or other past tense endings.

If you have a verb that is being used to describe or modify a noun, it will be a participle.

Examples could be:
I need new hiking clothes.
Outraged, the girl stormed out the door.
Gerunds
Gerunds are verbs that act like a noun.

They are pretty easy to spot because they always end in "-ing".

They can be used as the subject, the direct object, or the object of a preposition.

For example:
"Eating rice with chopsticks is hard." (subject)
"I hate taking tests." (direct object)
"After swimming, you should use a towel."
(object of the preposition)
Nouns
Participles
Adjectives
Verbs
Pronouns
Adverbs
Prepositions
Gerunds
Conjunctions
Infinitives
Types:

* Common (begins with a lower case letter)

* Proper (begins with a capital letter)

* Possessive (shows ownership)
Here is how to find them in a sentence:
"Wendell used Sophie's crayons and left them on the porch so they melted."
This sentence has 4 nouns:
* Two common nouns
* One proper noun
* One proper possessive
noun
Let's look at the different pronouns here:
There are two singular personal pronouns, one plural personal pronoun, one demonstrative pronoun, and one indefinite pronoun.
"One of the reasons I like bread and jam," said Frances, "is that it does not slide off of your spoon in a funny way."
Albert said, "What do you have today?"
Here, there is one singular pronoun and
one interrogative pronoun.
"But you do not like eggs, " said Mother, "and that is why I did not poach one for you."
In this sentence, there are three singular personal pronouns, one demonstrative pronoun, and one indefinite pronoun.
Let's look at the adverbs in the following sentences:
"Quickly, she unwrapped it."
Here you'll see one adverb that modifies a verb.
"Sophia would hate it, but I think it's the most wonderful present ever!"
In this sentence, you've got an adverb that modifies an adjective.
Maude whispered very quietly, "If I keep watching it, it
can't get me."
Here, you can see an example of an adverb that modifies another adverb.
Find the examples of adjectives in the following sentences:
"Oh, what a beautiful picture to see! Will you
draw an invisible picture for me?
Here, you've got two adjectives and two
articles.
"... and there the sun burns crimson bright, and
there the Moon bird rests from his flight to cool in the peppermint wind."
In this sentence, there are two more adjectives and three articles. You can also see one proper adjective in use.
You probably had to memorize a long list of these in
Middle School, but just as a reminder, here are some examples:
across, after, against, around, at, before, below
behind, beside, between, by, during, except, for
from, in, of, off, on, over, since, through, over, to,
under, with, until, according to, because of, etc.

Lots sentences have at least a few prepositions. See if you can find all the prepositions here:
"... a lot of good tricks. I will show them to you. Your mother will not mind at all if I do!"
In this passage, you will find three different prepositions. Here's another example:
Here, you have three
prepositions.
"Then Sally and I did not know what to say. Our mother was out of the house for the day."
Let's look at the conjunctions in the following sentences:
He put his hat on the ground and, of course, George was curious.
This sentence has one coordinating conjunction and one subordinating conjunction.
George was both scared and excited.
Here is an example of a set of correlative conjunctions.
Verb Tenses
Verbs can be seen in six different tenses.
They are as follows:

1. present tense (happening right now)
"run", "see", "fight", "taste"

2. past tense (happened already)
"ran", "saw", "fought", "tasted"

3. future (will happen eventually)
will run, will see, will fight, will taste

4. present perfect (have or has + past participle)
has been running, has seen, have fought, have tasted

5. past perfect (had + past participle)
had been running, had seen, had fought, had tasted

6. future perfect (will have or shall have + past participle
will have been running, shall have seen,
will have fought, shall have tasted
Let's look at the examples of verb in the following:
Then, when every last cent of their money was spent, The Fix-it-Up Chappie packed up and he went.
So in this sentence, you have three action verbs and one helping verb.
Look back at the sentence. What tense are the verbs in?
Here is one more to try...
That day they decided that Sneetches are Sneetches, and no kind of Sneetch is the best on the beaches.
Here, you've got one action verb and two linking verbs. This one is tricky because you have two different tenses within the same sentence.
Find the gerunds in the sentences below:
She is very good at wearing people out.
Look for the words with the "-ing" endings...
Olivia has a little brother named Ian. He is
always copying.
Olivia looks at it for quite a long time.
What could she be thinking?
Our next book has an example of a participle right in the title: The Giving Tree
Take a look at the following sentence fragments:
... so it set off in search of its missing piece...
...crusts of black burned buttered toast, gristly bits of beefy roasts...
... and you must sew my holey socks and soothe my troubled mind...
Find the infinitive verbs in the following sentences:
"Oh, I do have a lot to learn!"
"My, what nice folks," said Amelia Bedelia. "I'm going to like working here!"
"Well, look at that! A special powder to dust with!" exclaimed Amelia Bedelia.
Tuesdays: Sentence Parts and Phrases
Subject
Verb
Complement
Appositive
Object of Preposition
Object of Infinitive
Object of Gerund
Object of Participle
Prepositional Phrase
Gerund Phrase
Infinitive Phrase
Subject
The subject is what the sentence is about. (What is being talked about?)
The subject must be a noun, pronoun, gerund,
or infinitive.
The subject can never be in a prepositional phrase.
"There" and "Here" are never the subject of a sentence.
The subject CAN be an "understood you".
("Give me that pencil."
YOU should give me the pencil, so "you"
are the subject.
Let's look at the examples below:
Verbs
In a sentence, the verb shows what is happening.
You will need to know two types of verb sentence parts: transitive and intransitive.
Transitive verbs takes a direct object,
or a specific point relating to the verb.
In the example "We love English.",
you can see clearly what we love... English.
Intransitive verbs do not take a direct object.
All linking verbs (am, be, was, etc.)
will be intransitive.
Look at the examples here.
Are the verbs transitive or intransitive?
Complements complete the meaning of the subject and verb. There are four types...
A direct object is a noun or pronoun, and
it follows an action verb.
You will never see one in a prepositional phrase.
To find it, find your subject and verb, then ask "what?".
For example: She loves kittens. She (subj) loves (verb)... what? Kittens! (d. obj.)
An indirect object is also a noun or pronoun, and it comes before a direct object to help clarify the meaning.
You will also never find one in a prepositional phrase.
To find it, find your subject, verb, and direct object, then ask "to or for whom or what?".
For example: I gave her a kitten. I (subj) gave (verb) kitten (d. obj.)...
to whom? HER! (in. obj.)
Here are the other two types:
Predicate nominative is also a noun or a pronoun. It follows a linking verb and renames the subject.
To find it, find your subject and linking verb, then ask "what?"
For example: She is a sweet girl. She (subj.) is (linking verb)... what? Has to be a noun, so your choice is GIRL.
Predicate adjectives are adjectives which follow linking verbs and describes the subject.
To find it, find your subject and your linking verb, then ask "what" again.
If your only option is an adjective, then it will be your predicate adjective.
For example: The kitten is fluffy. Kitten (subj) is (verb) FLUFFY (is an adjective, so must be your predicate adjective.
See if you can find the different examples here...
Appositives, or appositive phrases are a noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun of pronoun.
For example: My daughter Anya loves dance class.
Alexander, my son, has taught me many meaningful things about life.
Where are the appositives in the following passages?
The object of a preposition follows the preposition and explains "what"
it is referring to.
For example: That apple is for you.
For who? YOU.
If there is no object, then the word in question is not actually going to be a preposition.
"Please stand up."
Up is an adverb telling you how to stand.
The object of an infinitive works in a similar way...
it follows the infinitive and tells "what".
For example: I like to go walking after school.

To go what? Walking
Just like the others, the object of a gerund follows a gerund and tells "what".
For example: I hate riding the bus.

Riding what? The bus.
The last of our "objects", the object of a participle follows a participle and answers "what".
For example:
The crying baby had a wet diaper.
Crying what? Baby.
Prepositional phrases are a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun.
A prepositional phrase can act as an
adjective or an adverb.
For example:
The girl sleeps
under the warm blanket
. (adv.)
The book
on the floor
got wet. (adj.)
Gerund phrases include a gerund plus its modifiers and objects.
For example:
Walking in the rain
can give you blisters.
Participle Phase
Participle phrases include the participle plus its modifiers and objects.
To tell the difference between a participle and gerund, you must decide if the word functions as a noun or as an adjective.
For example:
The water drains slowly in the pipe
clogged with dog hair.
Just like the others, infinitive phrases include an infinitive plus its modifiers and objects.
For example:
She wants
to change her schedule
.
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence
Compound-Complex
Sentence
Every sentence must have at least one independent clause.
The independent clause can usually stand alone.
It will not start with a relative pronoun or subordinating conjunction.
For example:
The doorbell rang.
The food was spicy and flavorful.
She told me a secret.
Dependent clauses (also called subordinating clauses) don't make sense on their own.
It will start with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction.
For example:
The project was not completed on time,
because my partner was absent
.


Where were you
when the bell rang
?



Most people don't know
who their senators are
.
Simple sentences have just one independent clause.
For example:
Mary and Samantha took the bus.
A compound sentence includes two or more independent clauses.
For example:
Joe waited for the bus
,
but
the
bus was late
.
Complex sentences include one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
For example:
While he waited at the bus stop
,
Joe realized that the bus was late
.


After I came home
,
I made dinner
.
"The little toy clown waved his flag."
"I have never been over the mountain."
"And the Little Blue Engine smiled as she puffed down the mountain."
"Who am I?"
"My name is Ned."
"I do not like my little bed."

"This is no good."
"This is not right."
"My feet stick out of
bed all night."
"Hurray! Now I will not be cold!"
What is the direct object here?
Now look for the indirect object:
"To explain the broken lamp, we told Mother a lie."
Now find the predicate nominative...
"The Birthday Soup is hot, so we
must eat it now."
Finally, look for the predicate adjective.
"This birthday cake is a surprise
for you."
"You'll play your very best piano piece, "Moonlight Sonata", and she'll start dancing.
"When you give her the bubbles, she'll probably ask you for her favorite toy, a rubber duck."
Find the Object of the Preposition in the following:
"Will you please look in my ear?"
"By the light of the moon, by the
light of a star, they walked all night from near to far."
Easy one! Find the Object of the Infinitive:
"On his hook he had a book. On his book was
"How to Cook"."
"We have to open many
cans. And that is why we have a Zans."
Look for the Objects of the Gerund below:
"Working is hard!"
"Driving is easy!"
(Really simple!)
Find the objects of the participle here: (Also really easy!)
"Mercury's close to the sun's burning light."



"It's hot in the daytime but has a freezing surface at night."
Find the Prepositional Phrases:
"The firefly saw a light and flew toward it."
"It was a lantern glowing in the night."
Look at the Gerund Phrases here:
"Swinging from the wire made George tired."
"Reading with the man was fun."
"George was frightened badly by the shot. He thought it would hurt."
Here is an example of a Participle Phrase:
Last One!
Find the example of an infinitive phrase.
"I am too big to climb and play," the boy said.
"I am too old and tired to swing on
branches," said the boy.
Find the independent clauses here:
"The bat magically turned into a beautiful butterfly."
"Back and forth went the broom, from the well to the pool."
"At his command, the
stars whirled through
the sky."
Try to pick out the dependent clauses below:
"Ariel knew she had to do something, before the shark came back!"
"Since the concert was ruined, King Triton was very angry."
"While she knew it was wrong, Ariel still hoped that the Sea Witch could help her."
Which of these are simple sentences?
"Belle was frightened of the Beast's castle."
"The wolves jumped at the horse, who reared and struck out with his hooves."
"Gaston wanted to
marry Belle."
Which of these clauses are compound?
"Harold wished the rug was a flying
carpet, and he felt it rise into the air."
"Since the moon was out, Harold could find his way across the sea."
Which of these sentences are complex?
"Little Betty Blue lost her holiday shoe."
"Old King Cole was a merry old soul, and a merry old soul was he."
"When the boys came out to play, Georgie Porgie ran away."
Compound-Complex sentences have two or more independent clauses, and one or more dependent clauses.
Here is an example:
"The dog lived in the garden, but the cat, who was smarter, lived inside the house."
Thursdays: Capitalization and Punctuation
Capitalization:

Use capitals for proper nouns and proper adjectives. (Arkansas, Swiss cheese)

Capitalize the first word of each sentence.
Semicolons:

- joins two clauses together without a coordinating conjunction
(I want to see a movie; she wants to go to Six Flags.)

- In this case, it takes the place of the conjunction.
Apostrophes:

- are used to make the word possessive and to make contractions.
(Megan's pen, it's, that's, didn't)

- NOT used to make the word plural.
(pen's does not equal more than one pen)

- Possessive pronouns = no apostrophes.
(hers, yours, its)

- For plural words that end in "s", just add the apostrophe only (girls', cats')
Underlining and Italicizing = the same thing

Use either one for titles of long things:
Newspapers, magazines, CD's, movies, novels, plays, musical compositions, etc.

Also use either one for names of ships, planes, trains, and artwork

Finally, use them for foreign expressions.

Quotation marks:

- Used to show titles of short things:
short stories, poems, songs, articles, episodes of TV shows, etc.

- Also use them to quote dialogue and words from other sources.

- Commas and periods that follow quoted words go inside the quotation marks.
- Colons and semicolons that follow quoted words go outside.
Commas are used to indicate pauses within the sentence and to separate clauses.

We will cover this in greater detail as we find these phrases and clauses in our DGP.

Also, use commas between items in a series, when someone is directly addressed (Amy, stop that!), to separate day of week, month, and year, as well as city and states in addresses.


Finally, use commas to set apart your introductory word.
(Whew, this took a long time!)

Good job, and we'll continue to use your notes as we work our way through our DGP examples.
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