Transcript of Toronto in 2012
Disasterous Events in 2012 What would happen if a Tsunami was to be formed in Lake Ontario?... Many theories have been made about what is to happen in 2012.... But do you believe in these theories? World ends in 2012..... December 21st Earthquakes Tsunamis Tornadoes Floods DOOMS DAY! This is our doomsday scenario... Earthquakes When forces deep in the Earth push the rigid crust beyond endurance the rocks can no longer take the strain, rupturing and shearing in a massive burst of energy resulting in an earthquake that can lay whole cities flat. What causes earthquakes? Earthquakes are caused when tension is released from the rocks in the earths crust and upper mantel. Sometimes earthquakes happen when the rocks in the Earth's crust bend and break. This tension is due to friction between what scientists believe are large "plates" floating on magma on the Earth's surface. This causes shock waves to travel on the Earth's surface, resulting in widespread destruction. Plate Tectonics The Earth is made up of three main layers. The outermost layer being the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and at the centre of the Earth, the inner core. The crust is made up of hard rock, mainly granite. The matle is mainly molten lava on which the crust is floating. The core is mostly iron, with the outer core being liquid and the inner being solid. The mantle is continually moving; this is called convection. It is also believed that the earth is divided into more than a dozen plates, which are floating on mantle. This therory is called plate tectonics. The plates often rub together, pull apart, collide or dive under one another. These movements cause earthquakes and also volcanoes. Bush fires Cyclones Earthquakes usually occur in places where two plates meet, called faults. Earthquakes are mostly generated deep within the Earth's crust, when the pressure between two plates is too great for them to be held in place. The underground rocks then snap, sending shock waves out in all directions. These are called seismic waves. Tsunami What is a Tsunami? A tsunami is often misnamed a tidal wave, but in fact a tsunami is not just one wave but usually a series of seven or even eight, that have nothing to do with the tide. In the open ocean, tsunamis are only about one metre high, but as they approach shallower waters and the shore, they grow to heights as high as eighty-five meters. What causes a Tsunami? Ths most common causes of tsunamis are earthquakes, volcanoes, and earthslides mostly undersea. Volcanos that have been erupting continuosly for a long time have empty magma chambers. The roof then collapses forming a crater sometimes up to one kilometre in diametre. Water gushes into this crater in a very short amount of time, causing a tsunami. Earthquakes originated tsunamis occur when portions of the Earth's crust on either side of a fault jolt past each other. For a tsunami to occur however , there must be some kind of vertical movement along the fault. This vertical movement must be capable of displacing huge amounts of water, thus causing waves. Tsunamis can also be caused by land sliding in to the sea with such great force that it creates a wave, similar to effect of throwing a pebble into a puddle of water. Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons What is a Cyclone, Hurricane, and Typhoon? They are huge revolving storms caused by winds blowing around a central area of low atmospheric pressure. In the northern hemisphere, cyclones are called hurricanes or typhoons and their winds blow in an anti-clockwise circle. In the southern hemisphere, these tropical storms are known as cyclones, whose winds blow in a clockwise circle. How do these storms occur? These storms develop over warm seas near the equator. Air heated by the sun rises very swiftly, which creates areas of very low presure. As the warm air rises, it becomes loaded with moisture which condenses into massive thunderclouds. Cool air rushes in to fill the void that is left, but because of the constant turning of the Earth on its axis, the air is bent inwards and then it spirals upwards with great force. The swirling winds rotate faster and faster, forming a huge circle which can be up to 2,000 km across. At the center of the storm is a clam, cloudness area called the eye, where there is no rain, and the winds are fairly light. Bush fires What causes bushfires? There are many different conditions that can trigger a bushfire including dry wheather, high temperatures, and flammable vegetation. In remote bushland areas lighting is the most common igniter. What would happen if these dangerous natural disaters were to occur in Toronto?... Tornados What is a Tornado? A tornado is a violent whirling wind, accompained by a funnel shaped cloud extending down from a enormous cloud. Commonly known as a twister, a tornado has an average width of a few hundred metres, but can be anywhere from a few metres to a kilometre wide where it touches the ground. It can move over land for distances ranging from short hops to many kilometres, causing great damage wherever it descends. How do tornados occur? Tornadoes form when two masses of different temperatures and humidity meet. If the lower layers of the atmosphere are unstable, a strong upward movement of warmer air is formed. This starts to spiral as it rises, and intensifies. Only a small percentage of these systems develop into the narrow, violent funnels of tornadoes. Floods What causes floods? Flooded areas of land usually start off as very dry land. Floods are caused by heavy rains that pour to much water into rivers and other waterways. Making these natural channels unable to carry all the water. Rising water flows over or breaks the banks to the waterways causing the surrounding land to be flooded. Different causes of floods can come from masses of snow melting off tidal waves. By: Hyrra and Cindy :) Eye of a Tornado Violent winds and debris slamming into buildings causes most structural damage. Tornadoes will cause many trees to be uprooted and killed. Thus, this contributes to global warming as the trees take in carbon and dioxide and gives out oxygen during photosynthesis. The ecosystem will become imbalanced as the animal population would most likely be wiped out. People will also be killed. Dirt and debris from the damaged and collapsed infrastructures and buildings will circulate in the environment, resulting in pollution. Affects of Tsunamis The immediate destruction is only the beginning of the damage. After the waters retreated there is the elevated risk of disease created by contaminated water thus affecting the water system. Since most tsunamis occur south of the Equator and In the Pacific this only raises the risk of disease further. Bushfires release huge amounts of smoke and ash which, apart from creating pollution (provoking asthma and causing other health problems), also cause weather changes in the immediate area. Heat pushes up the air, creating humongus clouds which, if met by air of a different temperature, can result in storms. Affects of Bushfires The sea level rises 10-20 feet or more. The surge of water that can come ashore with a storm causes an incredible amount of damage. Once these storms make landfall, they often degenerate into a rain depression, which can bring flooding rains to a region. These storms don't only bring heavy rain.Full transcript
Their winds can cause erosion, as well as defoliation of forests. The first and major effect comes from the damaging winds. Flying debris also causes damage to trees, habitats, and can affect sewerage and sanitation systems. Affects of Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons Affects of Earthquake Affect of Floods The violent earthquakes not only destroy human population but also submerge land under seas. Sometimes rivers disappear or change their courses or get flooded. Due to the floods the water is pushing away all of the trees. All of the rocks are disintegrating off the waters current. The flooding has blocked up the draining making the sewers overload, which is how water born diseases, start to spread. Affects of Tornadoes Volcanoes occur when the Earth's plates pull apart causing magma to rise to the surface. Volcanoes can also occur over hotspots and where one plate dives beneath another, forcing magma to rise to the surface. Plates diving under one another is known as subduction. Affects of Volcanoes Debris avalanches and landslides can produce numerous dangers. The mixture of debris from a landslide or avalanche with water may produce harmful mudflows. They also can dam rivers or cause flooding. Perhaps one of the most important hazards that can be produced by avalanches or landslides is a tsunami. Volcanoes Volcaonoes Global warming threatens the planet in a new and unexpected way – by triggering tsunamis, avalanches and volcanic eruptions. Has global warming been the cause for these disasters? Effect on vegetation Despite the initial destruction of habitats, wildfires play a part in restoring an ecosystem by consuming decaying matter, destroying diseased trees and related vegetation, creating conditions for new seedlings to germinate and by returning nutrients to the forest floor. Though a wide mass of water from a flood over vegetation would help plants grow it could also kill the plants. With the water travelling through debris caused by the earthquakes, volcanic lava, tsunamis, cyclones and tornadoes it could contaminate the water as it flows over land. This destroys a huge spread of vegetation. Destruction The eye of a tornado is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of tornadoes. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area and typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather of a tornado occurs. The way the natural disasters effect vegetation can be combined in a similar situation. Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons are generated by the temperature difference and the wind flow caused by the warmth of the ocean. Cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons are all essentially the same thing; they simply receive different names depending on where they occur. Cyclone:
A violent tropical storm or wind in which the air moves very fast in a circular direction. They can be formed over tropical waters, like the Indian Ocean. Hurricane:
A violent wind which has a circular movement, especially found in the West Atlantic Ocean. Typhoon:
A violent wind which has a circular movement, found in the Pacific Ocean. Technically, hurricanes are cyclones- but not all cyclones are hurricanes: If their wind speed is over 74 miles per hour, they're hurricanes, if not, they're just cyclones or tropical storms. The Average Ocean teperatur is 27.5 degrees celcius. Due to global warming the water level has risen O.5 degrees celcius. For hurricane to occur the water needs to be 28 degrees celcius. Hurricanes Typhoons Rising Magma Magma pushing out Rift volcanoes form when magma rises into the gap between diverging plates. Extinct volcanoes haven’t erupted for tens of thousands of years, and aren’t expected to erupt again. Their ash also makes soil very fertile. So they greatly affect landforms. This was our doomsday scenario.... For the end of the world!