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Copy of Copy of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Old Major's Speech
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Old Major's Speech
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos are methods of persuasion invented by the Greek philospher Aristotle. Each of the use different appeals to try and persuade a listener into whatever the speaker wants them to think or do.
Ethos is based off of the character of the speaker. It is ethical appeal. People will listen if the speaker is a respectable person.
Pathos appeals to the emotions of the reader/listener. The speaker will get his point across more effectively if he can make a connection with the audience.
Logos is logical appeal. It uses information to back up ideas. Others would not be able to argue otherwise if a point is supported by strong facts.
This video addresses the different forms of persuasion and how they have had an effect of people. I apologize for the link. The video could not be inserted properly.
Old Major is a leader of the animals in George Orwell's Animal farm. Before he dies he gives a large speech. In this speech he uses all the forms of persuasion.
The crowd of animals he is speaking to clearly respects him. He has been with them for very long. In Animal Farm, it says "Old Major (so he was called, though the name under which he had been exhibited was Willingdon Beauty) was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour's sleep in order to hear what he had to say." (Orwell 4)
Old major makes use of the persuasion known as pathos as well. He does this when he says "I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months longer." (Orwell 6) He does this to gain his audience's symapthy. This will make them more willing to do what he wants them to do.
Old Major uses ethos again when he says "I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living." (Orwell 6) This sets Old Major up to be wise, which many of the animals believe him to be.
Again Old Major uses pathos when describing how the animals have lived under the watch of Mr. Jones. He speaks using "we" and "our." By doing this he expresses problems that are shared. This common ground is something he can then draw from to win the affection of his audience. He talks about problems that have plagued the farm animals for a long time, but Old Major was never majorly affected by them. He even takes note of this in his speech; calling himself "one of the lucky ones." This is quite odd because he was trying to call himself one of them even though he did not experience the same hardships.
Logos can be seen when Old Major is describing the living conditions on the farm. He says "The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it. This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep- and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable condition?" (Orwell 7) Old Major expresses the fact that their farm currently has the proper materials to let the animals live a comfortable life but this cannot be because of Mr. Jones.
Old Major uses logos again when he describes man and how all he does is take from the animals and does not give anything back. Old Major says "He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is still lord of all the animals." (Orwell 8) He backs up his claim with this evidence. These words make his fellow animals realize that man is their true enemy and that they should rise up against him. Old Major also tells awful tales of what happen to the animals. He knows of these specific tales because he had witnessed them before.
Through these methods of persuasion, Old Major effectively gets through to his companions. This speech led the animals to take control of the farm.
Old Major's Speech
These videos are Old Major's speech from the cartoon film Animal Farm. The speech begins at 6:40 and carries on into the beginning of the second video. Again, I am sorry for the link. The videos could not be inserted properly.