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Transcript of Monogastric Digestion.
Period 2 The mouth is the beginning of the digestive system. Food is grasped and chewed by the teeth. It is broken into smaller more easily processed pieces. The salivary glands produce salvia which moistens and lubricates the food for easier swallowing. Some species' (hogs, humans and rats) salvia contains amylase, an enzyme which begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates The Oral Cavity: The esophagus is the muscular "food" tube which connects the oral cavity to the stomach. It has two muscular layers, one circular and the other longitudinal. Food is moved "along" in waves (longitudinal muscle layer) and "squeezed" or segmented by the circular muscle layer. There is both voluntary and smooth muscle in the esophagus, (the amount varies by species). The dog, cow and sheep have the most voluntary muscle. The Esophagus: The stomach is a muscular and expandable pouch that regulates the movement of food into the intestines and begins the digestion of specific nutrients. The stomach contains two functional sphincters for regulation of food movement. One is at the entrance into the stomach (cardiac sphincter) and the other is at the exit (pyloric sphincter). These sphincters are composed of bands of smooth muscle which constrict to partially or fully close.The stomach contains three muscular layers situated at right angles to each other. When these muscles contract the gastric contents are churned and mixed. The Stomach: The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. It is located between the stomach and the middle part of the small intestine, or jejunum.
After foods mix with stomach acid, they move into the duodenum, where they mix with bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices from the pancreas. Absorption of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients begins in the duodenum. The Duodenum: Part of the small intestine. It is half-way down the small intestine between its duodenum and ileum sections.
The term "jejunum" derives from the Latin "jejunus," which means "empty of food," "meager," or "hungry." The Jejunum: the final section of the small intestine. It is about 4m long in humans, follows the jejunum and is separated from the cecum by the iliocecal valve. Its function is to absorb vitamin B and bile salts. The Ileum: The Cecum: The colon is also called the large intestine. The ileum (last part of the small intestine) connects to the cecum (first part of the colon) in the lower right abdomen. The rest of the colon is divided into four parts:
• The ascending colon travels up the right side of the abdomen.
• The transverse colon runs across the abdomen.
• The descending colon travels down the left abdomen.
• The sigmoid colon is a short curving of the colon, just before the rectum.
The colon removes water, salt, and some nutrients forming stool. Muscles line the colon's walls, squeezing its contents along. Billions of bacteria coat the colon and its contents, living in a healthy balance with the body. The Colon: The rectum is about eight inches long and serves, basically, as a warehouse for poop. It hooks up with the sigmoid colon to the north and with the anal canal to the south.
The rectum has little shelves in it called transverse folds. These folds help keep stool in place until you're ready to go to the bathroom. When you're ready, stool enters the lower rectum, moves into the anal canal, and then passes through the anus on its way out. The rectum: The anus is the end of the line for the alimentary canal. The anal canal lies to the north of the anus and the light of day is to the south. During defecation, waste passes from the rectum, through the anal canal, and ultimately out through the anus. The anus: It's the external anal sphincter's job to keep the exit closed throughout the day. If you've ever made a conscious effort to close the flood gates during a bout of diarrhea, the external anal sphincter is the muscle you were controlling. External Sphincter of the Anus: The internal anal sphincter is an involuntary muscle, which means it does its job on its own without any orders from you. What is its job? The internal anal sphincter helps keep poop from leaving the body before its time and also helps escort it out when the time is right. Internal Sphincter of the Anus: The process of making food absorbable by dissolving it and breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds that occurs in the living body chiefly through the action of enzymes secreted into the alimentary canal. Digestion: . Absorption: Salivation: Having a stomach with only a single compartment. Monogastric: An animal that eats flesh. EX: Dogs, cats, bears, seals, and weasels. Carnivore: The process of seizing or grasping or otherwise getting food into the mouth Prehension: The cecum (also spelled caecum), the first portion of the large bowel, situated in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
The cecum receives fecal material from the small bowel (ileum) which opens into it. The appendix is attached to the cecum.
The word "cecum" comes from the Latin "caecus" meaning "blind." This refers to the fact that the bottom of the cecum is a blind pouch (a cul de sac) leading nowhere. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 1) 2) 3) 4) http://www.schooltube.com/video/f2020226960ef72f64b3/Carnivors ViDEO A watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the digestion of food. Also serves to moisten and cleanse the mouth, including the tongue and teeth, and contains substances that can play a role in the prevention of infection. Saliva aids digestion by moistening food and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process. Also known as spit. The act or process of absorbing or sucking in anything, or of being absorbed and made to disappear; as, the absorption of bodies in a whirlpool, the absorption of a smaller tribe into a larger. Peristalsis is a series of organized muscle contractions that occur throughout the digestive tract Peristalsis: Different species use different techniques to prehend food - for example
horses and goats rely considerably on their lips, whereas cattle, dogs and cats don't use their lips to any extent, but rather, gather many foods with their tongues As with prehension, there are considerable differences among species in techniques used for drinking, that basically boil down to being either a "sucker" or a "lapper". Drinking is usually an efficient process, although beards and moustaches can sometimes interfere. DIFFICULT PREHENSION
needs to be classified into difficulty in approaching food, paralysis of the tongue or jaws, malapposition of incisor teeth, pain in the mouth, foreign body in the mouth, and defective development of the lips or tongue.