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ABC's of AP Government and Politics
Transcript of ABC's of AP Government and Politics
Kelsey Hammond Amicus Curiae Brief "Friend of the court" Someone who is not an involved party
of the case but offers information to a court. Affirmative Action Refers to policies and stipulations in areas of business, employment, and education that give benefits and other opportunities to a group that is known to be underrepresented, therefore trying to prevent discrimination. Buckley v. Valeo Set limits on individuals' campaign contributions Limited campaign expenditures Bully Pulpit Advantageous position to provide an opportunity to speak and be listened to. Critical Election Political alignments change fundamentally Ex: FDR election of 1932 Categorical Grant Specific and strict guidelines on the money
allotted to the state. Cooperative Federalism The state, local, and
work together and their
powers overlap and intertwine.
AKA marble cake federalism
AKA fiscal federalism Devolution Revolution Slowing the growth of the
national government by returning
some powers back to the states. Divided Government The circumstance where one party controls the White House and the other party controls one or both houses of Congress. "Exclusionary Rule" Evidence that is obtained illegally
by unlawful searches and seizures
is not admissible in courts. Entitlements Benefits that are guaranteed by rights or by legislative acts.
Ex: Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid. Frontloading Scheduling state party caucuses and primary elections earlier to create influence and gain media attention. Free Riders Someone who benefits from something without paying for it.
Ex: A person who benefits from the acts of an interest group without contributing to the interest group. Gitlow v. New York Selective incorporation case that questioned
if the states had to obey the Bill of Rights. Griswold v. Connecticut Ruled that the Constitution did protect a right to privacy.
Case involved the issue over the use of contraceptives. House Rules Committee Reviews all bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full house.
Decides what business comes up for a vote and what the limitations on debate should be. Horse Race Journalism Focuses on polls, perceptions of candidates instead of policies, and reports of candidate differences.
Pays more attention to the leader of the race instead of the issues that are presented by the candidates. Inherent Powers Powers that are necessary to a sovereign entity to carry out a position. Iron Triangle Made up of a congressional committee or subcommittee, an interest group, and an executive agency that work together to make public policy and pass pieces of legislation. Judicial Activism When judges stray from the precedents and previous decisions and make decisions based on modern needs. Judicial Review The power of the courts to review actions of the
legislative and executive branches. This is an example of checks and balances. Korematsu v. US Japanese Americans were placed in internment camps
for fear of them being spies.
This case questioned the constitutionality of executive orders. Linkage Institution An entity that connects the people to the
government and the government's activities. Line-Item Veto The power to omit a part of a piece of legislation.
This power is denied to the president but is available to state governors. Majoritarian Democracy A type of democracy that is based upon the majority rule of the electorate. Monetary Policy Controls the money supply.
Also controls interest rates and bank reserve requirements. Necessary and Proper Clause States that Congress has the power to make laws that are necessary and proper for the execution of other powers.
AKA Elastic Clause Ninth Amendment States that the people have other rights that are not enumerated in the Constitution. Oversight (Legislative) The supervision and review by Congress of the acts of the executive branch of government. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Assists the President in preparing the budget and supervises its execution in the executive agencies. Per Curiam Opinion When a decision is issued by a court but there is no sole author. Prior Restraint Banning expression of ideas prior to publication. Quota System The system of limiting minority members in a certain entity, such as the US or businesses.
Most famously known through the college admissions process. Rule of Four The practice of the Supreme Court that requires four of the nine justices to agree to review a case. Rule of Propinquity The closer you physically are to a person, the more influence you have over them and the decisions they make. Speaker of the House The leader of the House of Representatives.
2nd in line of presidential succession. Seniority System Giving privileges and opportunities to the members of Congress that have served the longest. Trustee Model of Representation The people elect "trustees" as their representatives and the people trust that the representatives will make the right decisions.
The representative does not have to follow the wishes of the people; can make personal decisions. Unified Government The House of Representatives, Senate, and White House are all controlled by the same party. US v. Nixon Issue of executive privilege and when the president can execute this. Watergate Scandal. Voting Rights Act of 1965 Outlawed practices of discrimination that had been keeping African Americans from voting. Writ of Habeas Corpus "Have the body."
Guarantees that an accused person will appear in court or in front of a judge. War Powers Resolution Presidents are not allowed to deploy troops into battle without the consent and approval of Congress.
Presidents have to inform Congress of deployment at least 48 hours before.
In times of peace, troops can only be deployed for a maximum of 60 days, with a 30 day withdrawal period. Ex Post Facto Laws "After the fact."
Causes actions that were committed in the past that were not criminal to be considered crimes.
Congress can not enact ex post facto laws. Executive Agreement An agreement or type of informal treaty that a foreign nation and the President enter into. This does not require the approval of the Senate. Youth Vote The voting trends, patterns, and habits of 18 to 29-year-olds in the US. John Peter Zenger Wrote an article that was said to be libelous.
Case was established and Zenger and it was proven that freedom of press was allowed in the US.