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What is an Argument?

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by

Stephanie Knorowski

on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of What is an Argument?


What is an Argument?
Write your own definition in the circle map provided in your notes.
Elie Wiesel's Nobel Peace Prize
What is a
Nobel Peace Prize
?
A title/award given to the nominee who has "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses" (Norwegian Nobel Committee).
The Nobel Peace Prize 2009 was awarded to Barack H. Obama "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".
Types of Evidence
Textual: books, websites, articles, films, historical documents, primary documents

World: the
news
, current
events
,
history

Personal Experience: anything
you
have
seen
or
experienced
yourself
Counterclaim
A
claim
made in
opposition
to another
claim
. Any arguments/reasoning
against
the claim you are making in
your paper
.
Claim
What is a claim?
Opinion vs. Arguable Claim
An argument is supported by
evidence
, which can be debated/challenged
Opinion
is supported by more
opinion
A claim can be
proven
with
research
,
evidence
and
reasoning
.
A claim is something more than statement and support; and arguable claim also goes on to address the "
so what
?" question, and
why
we should care
Remember, the best claims are
FOCUSED, SPECIFIC & RELEVANT
Practice
Write a
counterclaim
for the claim you wrote in part ll.
Use
evidence
from
your personal experience
to disprove your counterclaim
rebuttal = explain why the counter claim is false
Conclusion
Argument
An argument uses
reasoning
and
evidence
to prove a
point
.

*no, it does not mean a fight!
The argumentative essay
is a
genre
of writing that requires the student to:
investigate
a
topic

collect and
evaluate

evidence
establish a
position
on the topic in a
concise
manner.

Argument vs. Persuasion
A persuasive essay
May make a claim based on
opinion
May not consider
opposing ideas
Persuades by appealing to the audience’s
emotion
or by relying on the
character
or
qualifications
of the writer.
An argumentative essay
Makes claims based on
factual evidence
Makes
counter-claims
(the author considers opposing views)
Disqualifies or “
defeats
" serious opposing ideas
Convinces
audience through
quality
of
evidence
used to support the claim

Main Point
the
main argument
of an essay
the single
most important
part of any paper (or speech...or conversation!)
Claim...
A claim defines your paper's
goals
and
direction
.
It is supported by
evidence
quotations
expert opinions
statistics
etc...
AKA
SUPPORTING DETAILS!
Claim...
A claim must be
argumentative
when you make a claim, you are arguing a certain
interpretation
position
or
understanding
of your
topic
Twinkies are delicious.
Twinkies taste better than other snack cakes because of their texture, their creamy filling and their golden appearance.
I think Metro Tech is better than North High School.
The Governor is a bad man.
The governor has continually done the community a disservice by mishandling money, focusing on unimportant causes, and failing to listen to his people.
Elie's Speech
1. Identify the claim in Ellie Wiesel's speech
- draw a BOX around
the claim
(it can be more than one sentence)
- write your chosen claim in your
gray packet
part III
2. Identify
reasoning
(logic/details that support claim) by writing an "R" next to it
- Write two reasons in your
gray packet
Evidence
Supporting details
,
facts
,
quotations
, or
statistics
that support your reasoning and claim.
In-text citations
Place
quotation marks
around the words you are taking out of the article and place the author's
last name
in parentheses after the quote and quotation mark, followed by a period.

EXAMPLE
"It is with profound humility that I accept the honor you have chosen to bestow upon me" (Wiesel).
Practice
Highlight
all examples of
EVIDENCE
Ellie Wiesel uses to support his
claim
and
reasoning
and
directly quote
this evidence on the designated lines in your gray packet
Counterclaim continued
In arguing a claim, you should always consider potential counterclaims and
counterarguments
.
For instance, in response to a claim about the Seahawks:
"The Hawks defensive problems last year were a result of uncontrollable circumstances", someone might say: "You're wrong. The Hawks defensive problems last year were a result of poor coaching on the part of the defensive coordinator.
"
This counter claim
denies
the
validity
of my claim. Usually, it's important to
address
counterclaims in your writing
.
Rebuttal
the
evidence
and reasoning that
proves
the
counter claim
is
not
true.
Refer back to the pros and cons
Explain how it will help
Describe the next steps
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Claim continued...
A good claim is SPECIFIC.
It makes a FOCUSED argument.
EXAMPLE:
MTV's popularity is decreasing because it no longer plays music videos.
MTV is boring
Reasoning
The process of
thinking
about something in a
logical
way in order to form a
conclusion
or
judgement
Practice
Write a
claim
for ONE of the following topics
School uniforms
Homework
The effects of technology on every day life
Then, write
two reasons
to support your
claim
An argument is supported by
evidence
, which can be debated/challenged
Opinion is supported by more
opinion
A claim can be
proven
with
research
,
evidence
and
reasoning
.
A claim is something more than statement and support; and arguable claim also goes on to address the "
so what
?" question, and
why
we should care
Remember, the best claims are
FOCUSED, SPECIFIC & RELEVANT
What are the differences?
Full transcript