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Retaining Children in Sport
Transcript of Retaining Children in Sport
Retaining Children in Sport
Motivation for Sport
The physical advantages of sport participation have long been recognised.
While the to sports is common as a child, the quality and quantity of experience are less consistent.
Greatest rates of dropout occur in 12-15 year olds (Sarrazin et al., 2007).
The World Health Organization (2007) report that 22 million Western children under the age of five are overweight.
The importance of promoting and optimal and long-term sport engagement has never been more apparent
The Role of the Coach
Create the correct motivational climate.
Task involving climates are more likely to promote children's well-being.
When ego-involving cues are prevailing, children may suffer low self-esteem, anxiety and even poor eating practices (Duda, 2001).
Sport drop-out is also more likely in ego-involving climates (Duda and Balaguer, 2007).
Rewards and feedback.
Positive competence feedback can increase intrinsic motivation and reduce amotivation (Mouratidis et al., 2008).
Autonomy support - caring about the welfare of athletes and showing respect is positively related to feelings of relatedness by players (Reinboth et al., 2004).
When studied in a longitudinal manner, socially supportive coaching has been found to reduce intrinsic motivation (Amorose and Horn, 2001).
Why Play Sport?
The continuum reflects the varying degree of autonomy captured in reasons to play sport.
Not easy to define the reasons as purely extrinsic or intrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation is the most autonomous (or self-determined). Reasons identified are linked to personal gain, fulfilment, skill gains, etc.
Participation in sport in order to avoid feelings of guilt is a common example of introjected regulation.
Participants playing sports for no reason at all cannot see the point of participation, commonly known as amotivation.
The more sports participation is self-determined depends on the quality of the experience.
Nature of Motivation
'Motivation' remains one of the most vague and inadequately understood constructs (Roberts, 2001).
Motivation might be classed as a quantitative entity, e.g. how much effort does the child put in.
However, this does not capture the the meaning and value of the participation for the individual.
Participants play sport for a variety of reasons:
love of the game
pleasing a pushy parent
receive a reward
to meet socially defined body ideals
These are termed 'motivation regulations'
Motivation regulations is a function of satisfaction verses thwarting of the three psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness.
Social agents (such as teachers and coaches) are in prime position to foster these three basic psychological needs.
According to Nicholls (1989), very young children are innately 'task orientated'.
By age 12, most children are cognitively capable of being more or less task-involved or ego-involved in sport (Fry, 2001).
The potential to have a dominant ego orientation upon reaching adolescence is a big possibility, this is were significant others play a really important part (Ames, 1992).
The most desirable orientation is obviously task, understanding how to nurture this needs to be considered by coaches.
Define each aspect of TARGET and suggest strategies that can be implemented to maximise the motivational climate in youth football.
Self-talk helps young children to problem-solve. Design a drill that requires participants to use self-talk as they participate in their skills.
With which activities are paralanguage and delivery towards temporal components important?
As a coach with a new team, design a strategy that enables you to source information about your participants that you could use to build the coach-athlete relationship.
Just about all actions that we perform are underpinned by motivation regulations. Write down three activities that you have engaged in this week (e.g. studying, spending time with family and friends, training for your sport, cleaning your teeth). For each activity consider the reasons why you performed the behaviour. Which motivation regulations do you think were your central determinants?
The Role of the Coach
Focus on the immediate thoughts and feeling of the athletes.
Describe the behaviour rather than trying to evaluate it for a counter-attack.
Maintain an open posture and ensure that body language suggests ready to receive information.
Supportive communication, head nodding, verbal language such 'As I see' or 'uh huh'.
Continue to ask 'What is the athlete feeling at the moment?'
Help participants make reference to other learned skills.