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Unit 6-WWI


guadalupe nieves

on 3 December 2018

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Transcript of Unit 6-WWI

U.S. Declares War
Mechanized warfare created mass slaughter
WWI New Weapons of War
The Great War
“Make the world safe for Democracy”
“War to end all wars”
U.S. Declares War
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Financial interests
Causes of U.S. involvement:
Zimmerman Note
U.S. Enters War

Trench warfare on western & Eastern fronts

“No Man’s Land"
Battle tactics contributed to slaughter
The Great War
Trade decreased with Germany and increased with Allies

Loans made to England giving U.S. a “vested” interest in Allied victory
U.S. Neutrality: But not really
It’s the way he sees it
U.S. Neutrality
“In spirit as well as deed”
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. Policy: The Great War

Long- range artillery


New Weapons
U.S. sympathizes with allies
British propaganda
U-boat attacks
EX: Lusitania
U.S. Policy: Neutrality (?)
The U.S. declared war on
Germany on April 6, 1917
Unrestricted submarine warfare:
announced by Germany Jan, 1917

1. Declared all ships would now be sunk
2. Germany began sinking American ships
3. This was the biggest reason for why the U.S.
declared war against Germany
Submarine warfare
1. Sinking of the Lusitania , May 1915
-- Over 1000 dead; 128 Americans
2. Wilson warns Germany
3. Americans increasingly now saw
Germany as the “bad guy”

1. Top-secret message from Germany to Mexico.

2. Intercepted by Britain

3. Proposed an alliance with Mexico against the U.S.

-- If Germany won, Mexico would get back much land it had lost in the Mexican War (e.g. Arizona, New Mexico, California)
A French cartoon of Germany
British propaganda poster illustrating the sinking of the 'Lusitania' by the Germans in 1915.
A British Cartoon, 1915
A Russian Cartoon:
“Let me help you”
Gavrilo Princip
The bodies of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
and his wife, Sofie, lie in state in Sarajevo.

1. Assassination of the Austrian heir to the

2. Austria (backed by Germany) made
severe threats against Serbia
The Great War
"The Spark"
Poison gas
-- President Wilson now had to sell the
war to the American people
In 40 to 50 words explain how WWI started? What were the causes of WWI (M.A.I.N.)? Explain the Powder Keg metaphor.


The Powder Keg

When a stronger country takes over a weaker nation
Competition and conflict among European nations created over colonial holdings in Africa and Asia


An alliance is an agreement between friendly countries for protection.


The policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standard army. “Always ready to fight”

Arms race created (competition to have the most weapons)


A deep devotion and commitment to ones nation. “I am proud of my nation”
Formally colonized people did not want to be ruled by other stronger nations


Balkan Peninsula made up of many cultures
and smaller nations fighting for their
independence of Ottoman rule (Turkish rule)

The Balkan Peninsula:
“The Powder Keg”

New Technology of war
Causes of WWI
The Powder Keg
a barrel of gunpowder

alliance system goes into effect as Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Sets off chain reaction that eventually starts the Great War

June 28- Franz Ferdinand killed

July 28- Austrian-Hungary declares war on Serbia

August 1- Germany declares war on Russia

August 3- Germany declares war on France.

August 4- Germany tries to invade France thru Belgium. Great Britain declares war on Germany.

Entangled alliances
Alliances in the War
(major countries)

Russia loses a huge number of men,
which caused major problems back in Russia.

The Eastern Front

War spread to many other parts of the world

A World War
In more detail write about… 1-How you felt? 2-What was the most difficult aspect?
3-What would an experience like this make a solider think about war?
4-How is this simulation similar/different to real war?

WWI-Summary: 50+words
Describe the fighting in the
Great War.

Who were the Central Powers and the Allied Powers?
Who was the leader of Germany? What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Describe the two fronts of the war and the fighting conditions.
Why was Russia weak?

Summary: 50-60 words
Describe the fighting in the Great War.

Russia decides to invade both Germany and
A-H at the same time

The Central Powers pushed Russia out

Russia was weak because:
Not industrialized (no technology)

Eastern Front

England creates a blockade against
Germany on the North Sea. WHY?

Kaiser Wilhelm II tries to avoid a 2 front war:
attack the West (France) First, and then the East (Russia)
Speed was the key!

Believed it was possible because Russia was not industrialized

Germany’s Plan to win the war

The fronts of the war are where all the trench warfare was located and all the battles happened
The Fronts

Kaiser Wilhelm II- becomes the leader of Germany and believed in militarism as the way to get power

Created the Triple Alliance to try to:
1. Isolate France
2. Expand Germany’s boundaries
3. Strengthen Germany’s armies


Alliances in the War
(major countries)

Nations committed all their resources to the
War effort.

The Gov’t controlled all production in the nation.

Total War

Stalemates: Trench warfare led to deadlock on the
Western Front

Resulted in lots of casualties (deaths)

Fighting Conditions

First Battle of the Marne: Sept 1914

Germans cross through neutral Belgium to get to France
Allies successful in defending Paris
The Allies win the battle and break up the success
of the Schlieffen Plan

Leads to Trench Warfare on the Western Front

First Battle of the Marne: Sept. 1914

Germany &
Austria Hungary
Western Front:

France & Britain
Many different kinds
Mustard gas was the worst
Total War!!!

Russia signs the: March 3,1918
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending their
involvement in WWI.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Before WWI, Germany and Britain were involved
in a naval race

Germany knew that she was unlikely to win a naval war against Britain.

The War at Sea

Italian Front Info

Fighting began on the Eastern front when Russia invaded East Prussia on August 17, 1914.

Germany immediately launched a counter-offensive and pushed Russia back

Eastern Front Info

Before the war , Italy was a part of the Triple Alliance.

Italy tempted by more land once the war was won, entered the war in April 1915 on the side of the allies.

Fought against Austria-Hungary


Italian Front

This pattern of attack and counter-attack continued for the first two years of the war.
Eastern Front changed position as land was captured and lost by both sides.

Battles fought along this front include –
Tannenberg, August 1914;
Masurian Lakes, September 1914;
Bolimov, January 1915;
Lake Naroch, March 1916;
Riga, September 1917.

Eastern Front Info

The Eastern Front

Eastern Front
was 3 times longer than the
Western front.
Ottoman Empire Enters the War
1915 Ottoman enter the war on the side of the Central Powers
End of the war in the East
Gallipoli campaign
In 1915, the Allies decided to try to attack Germany by attacking her ally, O.E.

Soldiers sent to the Peninsula while British ships tried to force a way through the Dardanelles.

The entire mission was a failure. The allies lost more than 50,000 men, gained hardly any land. 
Caucuses Campaign
Russia Ottoman Empire Boarder

Created a 3 front war for Russia
Published March 1, 1917
End of the war in the East
Czar Nicholas abdicates the throne, March 16, 1917

Russian Revolution begins.

Lenin takes over pulls Russia out of the war
US in the Trenches
Schlieffen Plan

July Crisis
(1) Serbian military officers and government officials instigated the assassination plot.
(2) Austria-Hungary decided to invade and break up Serbia giving parts to its neighbors and turning what was left into a client state of the Empire.
(3) Germany gave unqualified support to Austria-Hungary, the so-called blank check, in full knowledge of what the Austro-Hungarians intended to do.
(4) Austria-Hungary moved slowly and issued an ultimatum to Serbia.
(5) France supported Russia.
(6) Russia resolved to defend Serbia and immediately after the delivery of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia at 6.00 pm on 23 July, on the following day, started
(7) Serbia gave an unsatisfactory reply to the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum. Austria-Hungary broke off diplomatic relations and began to mobilize against Serbia.
(8) Britain initially tried to play a neutral role.
(9) Germany played a double game pretending to support mediation to solve the crisis but all the time encouraging Austria-Hungary to act quickly against Serbia.
(10) Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July, two weeks before it could complete mobilization and invade.
(11) Russia announced its mobilization within 36 hours of the Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia.
(12) France did not restrain Russia.
(13) Britain delayed for too long to make clear to Germany that it would support France and Russia.
(14) Germany realized that a European war was going to break out. Russia was mobilizing and Grey had finally made it clear that Britain would be drawn in and would support its Entente partners, France and Russia.
(15) The German military took control of policy and an ultimatum was sent to Russia.
(16) Austria-Hungary adhered strongly to its original objective to invade and break up Serbia.
(17) Russia ignored the German ultimatum.

Family Ties
Nikki-Willie Telegrams
To keep German ships in German ports
Full transcript