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Types of land reclamation

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Andrea Rio

on 1 April 2014

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Transcript of Types of land reclamation

The damaged land caused by natural disasters or human activities such as improper farming practices (Nutrients from soil are lost due to excessive ploughing and growth of crops) and mining activities (Mineral ores, vegetation and soil have to be removed to get minerals from the ground. )
Land Reclamation
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill , is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.
Stage 1: Piles (columns of sad) are forced into soft clay of sea bed to make it more stable
Stage 2: To keep the sea water out, a sand wall is built around the are to be reclaimed. Sand is stored just outside the sand wall just until it is needed.
Stage 3: The sand previously loaded into the sea is sucked up and pumped into the enclosed area.
Stage 4: Sand is compressed and a granite wall is built facing the sea to prevent area from being eroded by waves.
Stage 5: The land is left to rest and vegetation is grown to prevent soil erosion. The number of years it needs to rest depends on what it's going to be used for.
JAPAN is an example of a country that uses landfill to reclaim land. It
started during its post-war economic miracle, several coastal
areas undertook reclamation projects to house factories and
maritime. As it went on however, people were worried
about possible contamination and the strength
and safety of the ground.
Three common ways of land reclamation
Derelict Land
More land has been made available for development.
More buildings and infrastructure can be built, and
also for other reasons.

Much greenery has been removed in order for the land needed. Land reclamation can be damaging to corals and marine life. Corals are usually moved to another place when land is to be reclaimed. The corals might not be able to survive in that certain habitat, and thus die out. In some countries, where the project is large-scale, they do not even bother to re-plant the corals elsewhere, instead just reclaim the land on their habitat, causing them to die out immediately.

Marine life, such as fishes, might not have enough food after the underwater plantations are destroyed due to reclamation of land. This applies to the food chain. The waters might also be polluted from the soil used to reclaim land, causing the fishes to die and blocking out sunlight, depriving the underwater plants of growth. Marine habitats are also destroyed, as mentioned earlier; therefore, the marine creatures would be forced to move to another new habitat. Some might not be able to adapt, and thus die out. Some would just die without even finding a new habitat, as they cannot move long distances in water. Of course, the reasons and examples look tempting to us humans, but marine life is life too! We should try to protect is as much as possible, instead of just focusing on the advantages.

Current technology only allows us to reclaim land from waters up to 15m of depth
Not enough sand within singapore
The cost of bringing sand over to Singapore increases overall cost
Need to keep certain amount of sea space for shipping activities
(within singapore)
Empoldering is a method of reclaiming land from the sea, it involves the use polders -which is a piece of land in a low-lying area that has been reclaimed from a body of water. It is also a way to control floods.
Stage 1: A dike is constructed around the area to be reclaimed to keep water from coming in
Stage 2: The area is drained using pumps and drainage canals
Stage 3: Reeds, a type of plant, are sown by aircraft to help the soil form
Stage 4: Reeds are then burnt and ash is used as fertilisers four
years later
Stage 5: After 15 years, the polder is ready for growing crops, building of houses and construction of roads.
Fertilisers are added to soil to restore nutrients lost due to poor farming practices.
As mining activities causes greater damage to land, it needs more work. Waste heaps needs to be levelled out and mining pools need to be filled. Chemicals will be used to treat the contaminated soil and new vegetation will be planted to also act as a protection against soil erosion.

An example of an derlict land that is reclaimed is Malaysia's infamous theme park - Sunway Lagoon. This area was a disused tin mine
which has been restored for recreational purposes
In some countries in the Netherlands, most of the land is
below sea level. In order to to use the waterlogged
land for agriculture and other purposes, it is
drained by empoldering.
A plot of land in Sinai, with a total area of 40,000 acres has recently been confirmed reclaimed by the The General Authority for Reconstruction Projects and Agriculture Development (GARPAD). Recent graduates and young farmers will be allowed to participate in the bidding while investment companies are banned from participating. This project was launched as land reclamation seemed the most suitable solution for reconstructing the Sinai Peninsula in the long-term. Also, land reclamation utilizes larger areas when compared to the establishment of industrial or commercial projects. This project would supply locals in Sinai with agricultural products and also create urban communities in the region.
Plans of land reclamation taking place in Penang, near Tanjung Tokong were suggested on 27 March 2014. However, this project, known as Sri Tanjung Pinang II, which will reclaim 760 acres off the coast of Tanjung Tokong to create “an island” will have adverse impact on the area according to The Penang Forum. One of the Penang Forum's committee members even predicted that this colossal project could cause the loss of livelihood for 470 fishermen, sedimentation and siltation, and future issues such as traffic congestion. In 2006, when project Sri Tanjung Pinang I was carried out and reclaimed 240 acres of land, it had caused siltation and sedimentation along Gurney Drive and possibly even the Penang Port according to the Forum.
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