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Democracy in America

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by

Britt Christensen

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Democracy in America

The NEW
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
What challenges
faced the nation
(1820s and beyond)?
The American System?
Use the following pictures to help you describe the components of the "American System."
The American System:
1) Tariff of 1816
The Second Bank of the United States:
Private, made profits-but worked for the federal government
Issued money, collected taxes, paid government debts
Ensure money given by local banks had value
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819):
Congress has the right to act
Legitimate aim of legislation
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
States' rights
Tell me about the Missouri Compromise...
What were the causes?
What were the provisions of the act?
Admitted as free state
Admitted as a slave state
Slavery prohibited in all remaining territory within the Louisiana Purchase north of 36'30
Missouri Compromise (1820)
"This momentous question, like a fire in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union."
Thomas Jefferson (1820)
The Monroe
Doctrine
Discuss the Monroe Doctrine with your partner...goals? Message sent to the world?
The Monroe Doctrine
U.S. would stay out of wars in Europe
Warned European nations not to interfere in Latin America
U.S. would oppose any attempts at colonization by European powers in the Americas
Discuss the characteristics of the new Democratic Party...
Election of 1828:
"Vote for Andrew Jackson who can fight, not John Quincy Adams who can write."
Significance:
Jackson's election was the first to demonstrate how
universal white

male suffrage
had transformed American politics.

What can you tell me about the following people?
James Madison (R)
4th President (1809-1817)
The American System
Strict construction
Feared the states' rights issue would tear apart the country
James Monroe (R)
5th President (1817-1825)
Helped negotiate Louisiana Purchase
"Era of Good Feelings"
Missouri Compromise-sign of growing sectionalism
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Henry Clay
Senator and Representative from Kentucky
"Corrupt Bargain"
American System
"Great Pacificator"-role in many compromises
Western interests
One of the founders of the Whig Party
John c. Calhoun
South Carolina-represented southern interests
House of Representatives, Secretary of War, Vice-President of the United States
Supported states' rights and nullification
Scary looking....
John Quincy Adams
Son of John Adams
6th President (1825-1829)
Secretary of State-wrote the Monroe Doctrine
"Liberty is power"-U.S. should become the mightiest nation in the world
Democrats rallied against him, calling for individual liberty, states' rights, and limited government
Changing Political System
Read the overview of the Whig Party and be able to identify the defining characteristics of the party...
The Whig Party
The Nullification Crisis
What role did Vice-President John C. Calhoun play in the nullification debate?
Discuss the characteristics of Andrew Jackson as President of the United States...
The Nullification Crisis
At first, South Carolina was alone in its beliefs
Calhoun believed national stability necessitated states' rights
Calhoun left the party for the Whigs

Major Issues of Jackson's Presidency
(besides nullification and the preservation of the Union....)
Indian Removal Act
(1830)

The Trail of Tears
The Bank War
President Jackson
New, successful political party (Democrats)
Formation of Whig Party and the two-party system
Did not enact legislation

Expanded Presidential authority
Greater political access and activism by the "common man"
Why did President Madison veto the bill for federal financing of roads and canals?
Panic of 1819
Western land prices fell and banks demanded loan repayments; rise in bankruptcy and unemployment
What does this sound like???
James Madison
James Monroe
The debate continues....
Power of the federal government
States' rights
vs
Henry Clay
John C. Calhoun
John Quincy Adams
The Democratic Party:
Individual liberty, states' rights, limited government
Important role for political parties
Southern planters and farmers + urban Northern workers
Local governments protected liberty but powerful national government threatened liberty
Offered voters a choice and "checked" those in power
Shared distrust of the upper class and concerned by the gap between the social classes
Did not believe this is how it should be!
Provided funds to uproot "Five Civilized Tribes"
Natives deserved protection but lacked standing as citizens so Supreme Court could not enforce their rights
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
-Natives had the right to a distinct political identity
-Federal government must "deal" with them, not states
-State of Georgia had violated treaties

The "Spoils System"
Party loyalty became a qualification for some government jobs
Jackson distrusted bankers
Vetoed the Bank Charter
"Unacceptable for Congress to create a source of concentrated power and economic privilege that was unaccountable to the people"
Contributed to the Panic of 1837
Tax on imports that COULD be produced in the U.S.
Goods that COULD NOT be produced in the U.S.=tax-free
2) New Bank of the United States

3) Federal financing of new roads and canals
Paper money was notes promising "specie" (specific amount in gold/silver)
(1816-1836)
Panic of 1819 reduced trust in banks
Bank of U.S. blamed for the "panic"
"Where the aim of legislation was legitimate....all means which are not prohibited are constitutional."
Bank is a legitimate exercise of congressional authority
Federal vs.
States' Rights Debate
Tariff of 1828
Protect northern and western agricultural products
South Carolina called this the "Tariff of Abominations" and threatened to nullify it
Raised cost of living in the South
Cut into profits in New England's industry
Wanted to weaken the federal government before it could take action against slavery
"The Union-next to our liberty most dear."
Defended states' rights
Supporter of southern sectionalism
(May 28th, 1830)
Indian Removal Act
Authorized the President to grant unsettled land west of the Mississippi River in exchange for Native American land within existing state borders
American Democracy
Maine
Missouri
What is
Nationalism?
A feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward your country

“Every nation should anxiously endeavor to establish its absolute independence, and consequently be able to feed and clothe and defend itself. If it rely upon a foreign supply that may be cut off…it cannot be independent.”

Henry Clay (1815)
In reference to the American System
(vetoed by Madison)
What are
States' rights?
Political powers reserved for the U.S. state governments according to the United States Constitution
Think in terms of nationalism, sectionalism, and states' rights...
Social, political and economic ramifications of this policy?

What kind of future for the country is basically guaranteed by the Missouri Compromise?
Election of 1824
No candidate received majority of electoral votes
Henry Clay out (4th place)
Vote goes to
H of Reps
Clay used influence to help Adams get elected
Adams named Clay his Sec of State
Clay accused of making a "corrupt bargain"
Two party system
Politics a part of everyday life
Politicians as popular heroes
Parades and rallies
Party machines running local politics
Liberty and power can exist together
Government can encourage prosperity
Society is a hierarchy of social classes
Government as a promoter of morality
Supporters of national approach to economic problems + extreme states' rights advocates + enemies of Jackson
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
Believed gold and silver was the only honest currency

"The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will kill it."
Impact and Legacy
Attempt to keep government small (vetoed 12 bills)
Went through four secretaries of state and five secretaries of the treasury
Increased importance of the advisors
King Andrew and his "kitchen cabinet"
When we say "The Age of Jackson" what does this mean?
Important Term-
NULLIFY
"to annul or declare void"
States should be able to NULLIFY federal policy if it contradicted state goals
Decision:
Reaffirmed federal government over state government
First election to use speeches, rallies, parades to reach voters in large numbers
Jackson: "John Marshall has made his decision...now let him enforce it."
But...in doing this, actually increased power of what branch????
Goal
Effects
"Corrupt Bargain"
(1824)
Henry Clay used political influence to sway H of Rep voters towards JQ Adams in exchange for Cabinet position
Significance of the Nullification Crisis?
Tariff of 1828
Raised taxes on imported manufactured goods
Goal:
Protect industry in the northern United States
20 year charter from Congress
Maryland attempted to work around Bank of U.S.
Full transcript