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Exploration of the Americas

Notes, video clips and pictures of the Vikings, Spanish, Portuguese, French, English and Dutch explorers
by

Lindsey Zimmerman

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Exploration of the Americas

Explorers of the New World
Vikings
1. Portugal and Italy were the leaders of exploration in the 1400s.
Spain
France
New England
New France and New Netherlands
Viking Ships were one of the many
technologies that helped them to explore
Vikings like Erik the Red and his son Leif explored many areas near Iceland and Greenland
Leif Eriksson was the first European to settle the
New World, but his settlement, Vinland, did not survive.
The Vikings explored to find new lands, gain wealth, and find trade routes.
Prince Henry the Navigator- (Portugal) set up a center for exploration. Astronomers, geographers, and mathematicians all gathered in one place to share ideas. Really laid the groundwork for the Age of Exploration.
3. Bartholomew Dias- Sailed around the southern tip of Africa and named it Cape of Good Hope. Wanted to continue to India to be the first European explorer to establish an all water trade route with Asia, but his crew mutinied and turned around.
4. Vasco de Gama was the first European to sail around Africa and make an all water voyage to Asia and establish trade with India. His voyage was so important, most people forgot about Columbus.
6. The New World was named after explorer Amerigo Vespucci. A German map maker eventually named the two new continents after him, and the name “America” has stuck ever since.

7. He was the first person to suggest the lands found and discovered by Columbus and John Cabot were actually new, unknown lands.
The Portuguese explored to find a new trade route to INdia and China and a better way to get gold from Africa
Christopher Columbus
Three Ships, sailing for Spain- Santa María, Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara, nicknamed Niña (the Girl).
3. Four Voyages- Looking for all water route to "the Indies" (India, china and Japan)

4. He thought he could reach the East (Indies) by going west instead of around Africa

Led to widespread European exploration and colonization in North and South America

11. Columbus Died disgraced and poor. He had not brought back on riches or found new trade routes.
He never knew he had found land previously unknown to Europe
http://www.history.com/videos/columbus-ships-are-marvels-of-engineering#columbus-ships-are-marvels-of-engineering
Exploration led to exchange of goods and other things between the New and Old Worlds called the Columbian Exchange
Juan Ponce de Leon- (Spain)- 2. He was searching for the Fountain of Youth. 3. Instead he “Discovered” Florida. He was eventually killed by Native Americans many years later
Vasco Núñez De Balboa- (Spain)- Arrived in Panama as a stowaway onboard a Spanish ship. He gathered a group of people to hack through the Panamanian jungle in search of another ocean.
7. He traveled 45 miles to find what he called the South Sea. He was the first European to see this body of water. Later, Ferdinand Magellan found the same body of water. He renamed it the Pacific Ocean.
Hernán(do) Cortés- (Spain)- Conquered the Aztec Empire and killed their leader- Montezuma.

3.He robbed the Aztecs of their gold, silver and jewels.

Many Aztecs were killed by the weapons of Cortez and his Conquistadors, but disease played a much larger role in conquering the Aztecs.
9. He eventually sailed to the Philippines where he was killed in a conflict with the natives.
His crew continued and became the first crew to ever circumnavigate the earth. Of the original 300 sailors, only 18 survived the entire journey. His journey proved many things:
10. (1)The earth is a sphere and Asia could be reached by sailing west.
10. (2) The earth was larger than people thought.
(3) The pacific was the largest body of water in the world.
(4)There is more water than land on earth.

5. Ferdinand Magellan was the first to get to Asia by sailing west. He was sailing for Spain.

6. Along his journey he faced problems like, uncharted seas, harsh winters and mutiny.


10. (5) The lands “discovered” by Columbus and Cabot were indeed new continents, not just islands.
(6)There was no passage south through the continents, so future explorers would have to search north for an all water route through the Americas.
Francisco Pizarro- (Spain)- Heard of an empire even wealthier than the Aztecs farther south.

4. He assembled 200 men and traveled to present-day Peru to conquer the Inca.

He easily did this, took their valuables, and claimed Peru as part of the Spanish empire
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca- (Spain)- In an expedition with Panfilo de Narvaez to explore the Southeastern US. He was one of 4 men out of 800 who survived this 8 year expedition from Florida to Texas. His name translates to Head of Cow.
Hernando de Soto- (Spain)- 6. He was looking through the southeastern part of what is now the US for riches like Cortez and Pizarro.


7. He was the first European to see the Mississippi River.
He died of fever in 1541, and his men dropped his body into the Mississippi to hide it from natives.
Francisco Coronado- (Spain)- 5. His quest was to find Cibola- the 7 Cities of Gold, but he did not succeed. He had heard that gold was so plentiful there, the natives used it for everyday items like tools. He had also heard the streets were paved with gold. After 2 years of searching the deserts in what is now the southwestern US, he found Cibola. It was nothing more than a poor native village. He returned to Mexico with just 100 of his original 300 men.
23. Reasons they sailed:
(1) find new trade routes to Asia
(2) fame and glory of a discovery
(3) find riches, like gold, silver and jewels
Jacques Cartier- (France)- Searched the east coast of North America looking for the Northwest Passage. He “discovered” and explored the St. Lawrence River.
10. He claimed the land for France and named it New France. This land is now known as Canada.
Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet –(France)- 13. Father Marquette was sent to be a missionary and convert the natives.
14. Marquette and Joliet explored the Mississippi River all the way to Arkansas. Father Marquette converted many natives to Catholicism on the journey while Joliet made detailed maps of the Mississippi.
15.Their voyage proved the Mississippi flowed to the Gulf of Mexico and not the Pacific.
Robert de LaSalle- (France)- 16. He explored the entire length of the Mississippi River. He claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France. He named the new territory Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV of France. He also “discovered” and explored some of the Ohio River.
24. Even when they didn't find fame, riches or the Indies, there were some profitable goods in the New World.
(1) land rich in game
(2) natural resources
(3) fertile soil
Sir Francis Drake- (England)- 18. The Spanish know him as a captain who stole many of their gold-laden ships. (He was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the earth.)
19. In response to the English stealing their goods, the Spanish built up their navy.
20. The Spanish called their fleet the Spanish Armada.
21. English ships were smaller, lighter and more maneuverable. Spanish ships were large, old and clumsy.
22. When the English beat the Armada, they (the English) took control of the seas.
36. Henry Hudson sailed for Holland in 1609- Searched for Northwest Passage. Explored Hudson River but could not find NW passage and returned to Holland.
37. The Dutch did not want to settle real colonies, and were more interested in trade.

38. Holland used his discoveries to claim land in what is now New York.

39. The center of their settlement was a colony called New Amsterdam- present-day New York City.
Henry Hudson - one year after sailing for Holland, Hudson, who was Engish, sailed to find the NW Passage once again. He and his crew found the Hudson Bay. Thinking it was the Pacific Ocean, Hudson proclaimed he had found the NW Passage! When his men discovered it wasn’t, they set Hudson and his son adrift in the icy waters never to be heard from again.
31. Reasons the French explored: (1) find the NW Passage
(2) set up fur trade business
40. The Anglican Church was the official religion of England. If you refused to join this church, you were persecuted (jailed, killed, etc.)
Samuel de Champlain- (France)-
Also searched New France for a Northwest Passage. He established the city of Quebec.

11. He explored the Great Lakes and made extensive maps of the area. He inspired many French people and other Europeans to want to settle in the New World.

12. He also traded with and befriended the natives while living among them.
1. John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)- even though cabot was Italian, he sailed for England

2. He sailed a northern route to avoid Portuguese and Spanish explorers.

3. cabot, like many others, was searching for a shorter trade route to Asia.

He landed in North America, and is believed to be the first European since the Vikings to go ashore on the mainland of North America.

4. When he returned home, the King of England was upset he had not found a trade route to China and refused to sponsor any more of his voyages.

5. The English used this “discovery” to lay claim to all of North America.
17. The Northwest Passage is an all water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
1. Vikings were the first Europeans to land in the New World.

2. They came from Scandanavia - the northern part of Europe, including Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
3. The first Viking settlement was in Iceland in 870 AD.

4. Vikings in Iceland farmed, formed a democratic government and started a literature detailing their history.
5. Eric the Red discovered Greenland.

This was an odd name for his settlement, since it was covered in glaciers. But he named it this to attract people to settle there.

6. Later Eric's son, Leif Ericson (get it?) discovered Vinland.

Today we call this area Newfoundland.
7. Other European countries did not learn of these new lands when the Vikings discovered them because the Vikings and Europeans had little interaction with each other at this time.

8. Vikings did pass down their history through sagas. A saga is a story that is passed from generation to generation.

We still don't know how accurate these sagas are because the Vikings didn't write any of their stories down.
1. Columbus is often given credit for discovering the New World.

2. He was inspired to travel to Asia by Marco Polo.
He hoped to get spices, silk, gold and other valuable goods there.
5. Columbus asked the King of Portugal for money to fund his trip.

6. He promised to bring him back riches and claim any land he found for Portugal, but was denied.

7. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain finally agreed to finance his voyage.

8. On October 12, 1492 we believe Columbus landed in what is today the Bahamas.

9. He named the people there Indians because he thought he had reached the Indies.
Cabot and Vespucci
2. European nations tried to stop the monopoly Italy and Portugal had on trade with the Indies by finding a sea route .
He found a strait at the tip of South America that now bears his name- Strait of Magellan.

7. A strait is a passage/channel of water that joins to larger bodies of water

When he passed through this strait he became the first European to sail on the ocean Balboa had named the South Sea.

8.Magellan renamed it the Pacific Ocean because the waters were so calm and peaceful.
1. Spanish explorers and conquerors were called conquistadors.
8. The French were exploring the northeastern part of North America.

9. Giovanni Verrazano was looking for a northern route to the East. He was never able to find it.
New Spain
25. 4 reasons to settle for the Spanish:
(1) Gold
(2) God - convert natives to Christianity
(3) Glory - create empires for nobles
(4) Trade
26. At the center of New Spain was Mexico City.
27. St. Augustine was the first permanent European settlement on the US mainland. It is located in Florida today.

28. Spanish settlers were farmers, miners or ranchers (raised livestock).

29. The Spanish used Native American and Africans as slaves to do manual labor.
30. The Spanish treated the natives harshly - killing, tricking, and enslaving them.
32. Furs were used for coats, hats and other clothing in Europe - and were hard to find there.

33. Champlain and most of the French treated the natives well. They traded with them and befriended them.

34. The French adopted the natives culture by learning to speak their language and learned their survival skills.
35. French forts had trade and mass by French priests.
41. New England offered RELIGIOUS FREEDOM to the colonists.

42. During this time, there were few jobs in England. If you did have a job, you still barely survived.

43. The English hoped they could gain (1) furs, (2) lumber, (3) fish, and (4) other raw materials from the New World.

44. Even though most would not get rich, the New World offered ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES.
45. New England offered the colonists political freedom and the opportunity to rule themselves for the most part.

46. The New World also offered a better climate than England.

47. The earliest English colony was Roanoke.

48. These citizens searched for gold instead of farming! When they ran out of food, they had to return home for supplies.

49. When the next group settled at Roanoke, they tried farming - but the soil wasn't fertile. The governor of the colony returned home (again!) to get supplies.

50. He was gone for 3 years!

51. The colony had disappeared when he returned. The only clue was the word "Croatoan" etched into a wooden post.
https://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/misc/columbian/index.html

European Countries competed for control of the New World due to MERCANTILISM

MERCANTILISM:
the more places you control - the more stuff you have - the more money/wealth you have - the more power you have
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