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Achievements of the scientific revolution
Transcript of Achievements of the scientific revolution
by: Ana Fernandez
what was the scientific revolution?
A new way of thinking about the natural world that challenged traditional views and instead relied upon experimentation.
Great advances made in astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry.
Advances influenced developments in arts, architecture.
Impact of Scientific Revolution soon would cause philosophers, scholars to wonder if reason could solve poverty, war, ignorance.
Scientific Revolution established
new way of thinking
about physical world
Important figures of the scientific revolution
He was a Renaissance mathematician and
astronomer who formulated a heliocentric
model of the universe which placed the Sun,
rather than the Earth, at the center.
He was a German mathematician, astronomer,
and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his
laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and
Epitome of Copernican Astronomy.
was an English physicist and mathematician
who is widely recognised as one of the most
influential scientists of all time and as a key
figure in the scientific revolution. Newton's Principal formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
was an Italian physicist, mathematician,
astronomer, and philosopher who played a
major role in the scientific revolution. His achievements include improvements to the
telescope and consequent astronomical
observations and support for Copernicanism.
was an English philosopher, statesman,
scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author.
Extremely influential through his works,
especially as philosophical advocate and
practitioner of the scientific method
during the scientific revolution.
The Discovery of Elements of Nature
Until the seventeenth century, chemistry was tainted by its connection to alchemy. The Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) rejected the ancient theory that disease was caused by an imbalance of the four humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile). He began using chemicals to treat patients for diseases. The Englishman Robert Boyle made chemistry respectable by his discovery that the arrangement of atoms determines the characteristics of matter.
A great breakthrough in astronomy was made
by Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus who
proposed in 1543 the heliocentric model of the
solar system. This theory stated the Earth orbits around the Sun with other bodies in Earth's
galaxy (a large group of stars and other bodies).
Galileo soon became known through
his invention of a hydrostatic balance
and his treatise on the center of gravity
of solid bodies. He found that bodies do
not fall with velocities proportional to
The Circulation of the Blood William Harvey
also challenged the philosophies of Galen by accurately demonstrating how blood circulates through the human body.
The search of scientific knowledge
Observation and Experimentation
Scientists in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries stopped relying on ancient theories and preconceived notions. Instead, they began using a process of induction, whereby only after extensive observation and experimentation did they publish their theories.
Mathematics and Nature
A third method of scientific research was the application of mathematics to help explain the physical world. Newton explained his theories in mathematical formulas.
The Mechanical Philosophy
Much seventeenth-century research assumed that the natural world worked like a machine. The human body was understood as being dualistic; according to Descartes, the body was a machine, but the mind was an immaterial substance.
Another feature of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century research was the use of rational deduction. This idea was promoted by RenŽ Descartes (1596-1650), who argued that the best way to
solve problems was to establish fundamental principles and then deduce more specific ideas.
The Causes of the Scientific Revolution
Developments Within Science
The Scientific Revolution was partly caused by research on motion done by the scholastic philosophers of the fourteenth century, who began to challenge Aristotle's theories and began to advocate empirical observation.
Developments Outside Science
Protestants were more open to new scientific ideas because of the idea that God revealed himself in both the Bible and in nature. So nature should be studied because it helped to better understand God.
Humans and the Natural World
By making humans the inhabitants of a tiny planet circling the sun, the Copernican Universe reduced the importance of humanity.