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CHAPTER 19: EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT

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Alexandra Carreon

on 5 April 2016

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Transcript of CHAPTER 19: EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT

a. July 5, 1891 – Rizal left Brussels for Ghent, a famous university city in Belgium.

b. Reasons for moving to Ghent
i. Cost of printing in Ghent was cheaper than in Brussels
ii. To escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne

c. In Ghent, he met two compatriots, Jose Alejandro (From Pampanga) and Edilberto Evangelista (From Manila), both studying engineering in the world-famed University of Ghent.

d. Owing to his limited funds, Rizal lived in a cheap boarding house, with Jose Alejandro as room-mate.

I. PRIVATIONS IN GHENT
a. September 18, 1891 – El Filibusterismo came off the press.

b. Rizal, now a very happy man, immediately sent on this date two printed copies to Hongkong – one for Basa and other for Sixto Lopez.

c. To his friend in Paris, Valentin Ventura, who generously loaned him the funds needed to finish printing of the novel, Rizal gratefully donated the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy.

d. He sent other complimentary copies to Blumentritt, Mariano Ponce, G. Lopez Jaena, T.H. Pardo de Tavera, Antonio and Juan Luna, and other friends.

IV. THE FILI COMES OFF THE PRESS
ii. Sultan Zaide
1. with his royal family and retainers, was taken prisoner by the Spaniards during the wars in the Moluccas and brought to Manila
2. The old sultan, his children, and followers were promised good treatment, but the Spaniards forgot their promise and let them die one by one in misery

iii. Kamandangan
1. The hero of the novel
2. Descendant of Lakandula, last king of Tondo

X. RIZAL’S UNFINISHED THIRD NOVEL
a. The title page of El Filibusterismo contains an inscription written by Ferdinand Blumentritt. This inscription, which is not found in many published English translations.
VII. INSCRIPTION ON THE TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 19: EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT
2. Only he and his confidential associate, Basilio, know that when the wick of his lamp burns lower the nitroglycerine, will explode, destroying the house where the wedding feast is going to be held and killing all the guests, including the governor general, the friars, and the government officials.

3. Simultaneously, all the government buildings in Manila will be blown by Simoun’s followers.

h. Isagani

i. Rejected by Paulita because of his liberal ideas
ii. Was watching outside the house
iii. Basilio, his friend, warns him to go away because the lighted lamp will soon explode
iv. Realizes that Paulita was in grave danger

1. To save her life, he rushes into the house, seizes the lighted lamp, and hurls into the river, where it explodes

VIII. SYNOPSIS OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO
IX. NOLI AND FILI COMPARED
a. Noli

i. A romantic novel

1. Work of the heart, a book of feeling
2. It has freshness, color, humor, lightness and wit.
3. 64 chapters

b. Fili

i. A political novel

1. Work of the head, a book of the thought
2. Contains bitterness, hatred, pain, violence, and sorrow

e. Story:
i. Begins with the solemn burial of Prince Tagulima, som of Sultan Zaide of Ternate, on Malapad-na-Bato, a big rock on the bank of the Pasig River.

ii. Sultan Zaide
1. with his royal family and retainers, was taken prisoner by the Spaniards during the wars in the Moluccas and brought to Manila
2. The old sultan, his children, and followers were promised good treatment, but the Spaniards forgot their promise and let them die one by one in misery

XI. RIZAL’S OTHER UNFINISHED NOVEL
II. PRINTING OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO

a. Rizal searched for a printing shop that could give him the lowest quotation for the publication of his novel.

i. He did find a publisher – F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS, No. 66 Viaanderen Street – Who was willing to print his book on installment basis.

b. He pawned his jewels in order to pay the down payment and the early partial payments during the printing of the novel

c. The printing was going on, Rizal became desperate because his funds were running low and the money he expected from his friends did not arrive.

d. He had received some money from Basa and P200 from Rodriguez Arias for the copies of Morga’s Sucesos sold in Manila.

e. August 6 – the printing had to be suspended, as Rizal feared, because he could no longer give the necessary funds to the printer.

III. VENTURA, SAVIOR OF FILI

a. Rizal’s Cavalry in connection with the printing of Noli was repeated in the Fili’s printing.

b. His funds ran out in Ghent, a similar calamity that he experienced in Berlin in the winter of 1886.
c. In a moment of bitter disillusionment, he almost hurled the manuscript of the Fili into the flames, just as he almost did the Noli in Berlin.

d. Valentine Ventura in Paris learned of Rizal’s predicament and immediately sent him the necessary funds

e. With his financial aid, the printing of the Fili was resumed

e. Filipino patriots in foreign lands and in the Philippines praised the novel to the skies.

f. The members of the Filipino colony of Barcelona published a tribute in La Publicidad.

g. The liberal Madrid Newspaper, El Nuevo Regimen, serialized the novel in its issues of October, 1891.

h. Practically all copies of the first edition (Ghent edition) of El Filibusterismo were placed in wooden boxes and shipped to Hongkong, but almost all the boxes were confiscated and the books were lost.

i. Ghent copies were sold at very high prices, reaching as high as 400 pesetas per copy.

V. DEDICATED TO GOM-BUR-ZA

a. Rizal in all years of his studies, travels and labors in foreign lands had not forgotten the martyrdom of Father Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora, which Paciano related to him when he was a mere lad in Calamba.

b. We must rectify Rizal’s historical inaccuracies in his dedicatory note.

i. The martyrdom of Gomez, Burgos and Zamora occurred on February 17, 1872 – not on the 28th.
ii. Father Gomez was 73 years old – not 85, Father Burgos was 35 years old – not 30 and Father Zamora was 37 years old – not 35.

VI. THE MANUSCRIPT AND THE BOOK.

a. The original manuscript of El Filibusterismo in Rizal’s own handwriting is now preserved in the Filipiniana Division of the Bureau of Public Libraries, Manila.

b. It had been acquired by the Philippine Government from Valentin Ventura P10,000.

i. It consists of 279 pages of long sheets of paper.
c. The author’s correction are seen throughout the manuscript. Only a few pages have not been revised by Rizal.

d. Two features in the manuscript do not appear in the printed book, namely: the FOREWORD and the WARNING. – These were not put into print, evidently, to save the printing cost.

i. The FOREWORD appears just before the dedicatory page in the manuscript.
ii. The WARNING is found on the other side of the dedication.

VIII. SYNOPSIS OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO

a. This novel is a sequel to the Noli

i. It has little humor, less idealism, and less romance than the Noli Me Tangere
ii. It is more revolutionary, more tragic than the first novel

b. Simoun
i. The hero of the novel and is a rich jeweler

1. He was Ibarra of the Noli who with Elias’ help, escaped from the pursuing soldiers at Laguna de Bay.

ii. He fled to Cuba where he became rich and befriended many Spanish officials

1. He returns to the Philippines where he freely moved around
2. He is a powerful figure not only because he is a rich jeweler, but also because he is a good friend and adviser of the governor-general.

iii. He is secretly cherishing a terrible revenge against the Spanish authorities

1. 2 magnificent obsessions are:

a. Rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery of Santa Clara
b. To foment a revolution against the hated Spanish Masters

c. The story of El Fili begins on board the steamer, Tabo

d. This steamer is sailing upstream the Pasig from Manila to Laguna de Bay.

e. Among the Passengers were:

i. Simoun
ii. Doña Victorina
iii. Tiburcio de Espadaña
iv. Paulita Gomez
v. Ben Zayb (anagram of Ibañez)
vi. Padre Sibyla
vii. Padre Camorra
viii. Don Custodio


ix. Padre Salvi
x. Padre Irene
xi. Padre Florentino
xii. Isagani
xiii. Basilio

f. Simoun, a man of wealth and mystery, is a very close friend and confidante of the Spanish-Governor General.

1. Because of his great influence in Malacanang, he was called the “Brown Cardinal” or the “Black Eminence”
2. By using his wealth and his political influence, he encourages corruption in the government

a. Promotes the oppression of the masses
b. Hastens the moral degradation of the country so that the people may become desperate and fight


3. He smuggles arms into the country with the help of a rich Chinese merchant, Quiroga, who wants very much to be Chinese consul of Manila

4. His first attempt to begin the armed uprising did not materialize because at the last hour he hears the sad news that Maria Clara died in the nunnery

g. Simoun perfects his plan to overthrow the government

1. Beautiful lamp was given as wedding gift to Paulita Gomez and Julio Pelaez

i. Padre Florentino

i. Home refuge of Simoun when he escaped the soldiers who are in pursuit of him
ii. The Spanish authorities learns of his presence in the house
iii. Lt. Perez of the Guardia Civil informs the priest by letter that he would come at 8:00pm to arrest Simoun

j. Arrest was eluded by Simoun
i. Took a poison
ii. As he is dying, he confessed to Padre Florentino, revealing his true identity, his dastardly plan to use his wealth to avenge himself, and his sinister aim to destroy his friends and enemies

a. Other Characters of El Filibusterimo

i. Cabesang Tales
ii. Juli
iii. Macaraig
iv. Padre Millon
v. Placido Penitente
vi. Señor Pasta
vii. Tandang Selo
viii. Mr. American impresario
ix. Sandoval
x. Pecson
xi. Cabesana Andang
xii. Pepay
xiii. Padre Fernandez
xiv. Don Timoteo
xv. Tano
xvi. Chichay


l. As in the Noli the characters in El Filibusterimo were drawn by Rizal from real life.

i. Padre Florentino was Father Leoncio Lopez, Rizal’s friend and priest of Calamba.
ii. Isagani the poet was Vicente Ilustre, Batangueño friend of Rizal in Madrid.
iii. Paulita Gomez, the girl who loved Isagani but married Juanito Pelaez was Leonor Rivera.

ii. The original intention of Rizal was to make the Fili longer than the Noli

1. Rizal had to cut the Fili drastically owing to lack of funds

iii. Rizal himself considered the Noli as superior to the Fili

1. thereby agreeing with M.H. Del Pilar who had the same opinion.
2. Retana, Rizal’s first Spanish biographer also believes that the Noli is superior to the Fili.

iv. However, others – including Blumentritt, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Dr. Rafael Palma are the opinion that the Fili is superior to the Noli.

X. RIZAL’S UNFINISHED THIRD NOVEL

a. Even before Jaena suggested the writing of another novel, Rizal had already in mind to open a third novel.
i. September 22, 1891 – four days after the Fili came off the press, he wrote to Blumentritt.

b. Letter to Blumentritt
i. A novel in which politics will not find much space in it
ii. Ethics will play the principal role which deals mainly with the habits and customs of the Filipinos
iii. Jose wishes to be there; he wishes to be humorous, satirical and witty, to laugh and cry

c. On October 18, 1891 – Rizal boarded the steamer Melbourne in Marseilles bound for Hong Kong:

i. He continued writing it but did not finish it
ii. To be written in Tagalog, intended for Tagalog readers

d. The unfinished third novel has no title.
i. It consists of 44 pages in Rizal’s handwriting, still in manuscript form, it is preserved in the National Library, Manila.

e. Story:
i. Begins with the solemn burial of Prince Tagulima, som of Sultan Zaide of Ternate, on Malapad-na-Bato, a big rock on the bank of the Pasig River.

3. Plotted to regain the lost freedom of his fathers

4. He saved his two beautiful granddaughters, Maligaya and Sinagtala from the lustful Spaniards.

iv. It is said that Rizal was fortunate not to have finished this novel, because it would have caused greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance on him.

XI. RIZAL’S OTHER UNFINISHED NOVEL

a. “Makamisa” - a novel in Tagalog. It is written in a light sarcastic style and is incomplete for only two chapters are finished.

i. The manuscript consists of 20 pages.

b. “Dapitan” – It is unfinished, written in ironic Spanish. He wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs.
i. The manuscript consists of 8 pages.

c. A novel in Spanish about the life in Pili, a town in Laguna is also unfinished.

i. The manuscript consists of 147 pages.
ii. Among the characters are the following:

1. Padre Agaton – Spanish friar
2. Capitan Panchong and Capitana Barang – their pretty daughter

iii. Kamandangan
1. The hero of the novel
2. Descendant of Lakandula, last king of Tondo
3. Plotted to regain the lost freedom of his fathers
4. He saved his two beautiful granddaughters, Maligaya and Sinagtala from the lustful Spaniards.

iv. It is said that Rizal was fortunate not to have finished this novel, because it would have caused greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance on him.

XI. RIZAL’S OTHER UNFINISHED NOVEL

a. “Makamisa” - a novel in Tagalog. It is written in a light sarcastic style and is incomplete for only two chapters are finished.
i. The manuscript consists of 20 pages.

b. “Dapitan” – It is unfinished, written in ironic Spanish. He wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs.
i. The manuscript consists of 8 pages.

c. A novel in Spanish about the life in Pili, a town in Laguna is also unfinished.
i. The manuscript consists of 147 pages.
ii. Among the characters are the following:

1. Padre Agaton – Spanish friar
2. Capitan Panchong and Capitana Barang – their pretty daughter
3. Isagani – lover of Cecilia
4. Capitan Crispin – Political rival of Panchong
5. Dr. Lopez – free thinker

d. Another unfinished novel of Rizal, also without a title, is about Cristobal, a youthful Filipino student who was returned from Europe.


i. The manuscript consists of 34 pages.

ii. The characters are:
1. Cristobal
2. Amelia
3. Capitan Ramon
4. Dominican friar
5. Franciscan Friar
6. Spanish Lieutenant of the Guardia Civil.

e. The beginnings of another novel are contained in two notebooks.
i. First notebook contains 31 written pages.
ii. Second notebook contains 12 written pages.
iii. Through the mouth of the celestial characters, the author describes the deplorable conditions of the Philippines.
iv. This unfinished novel is written in Spanish and the style is ironic.
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