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The Tides of Revolution

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Tasia Cox

on 10 March 2016

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Transcript of The Tides of Revolution

What are some ideas that come to mind when you hear the word 'revolution'?
The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution
Revolution and Early Democracy
The Tides of Revolution
War
Discontent
King
Learning Objectives
You will be able to understand the basic the causes of the Glorious Revolution, The American Revolution and the French Revolution. At the end of this lecture, you will be able to identify at least 3 reasons why each revolution occurred.
You will be introduced to important documents that emerge out of the revolutions. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to determine each documents' main influence and main objective.

of England
Also called the Revolution of 1688 and the Bloodless Revolution
Was not a war that resulted in soldiers going into battle. No shots were fired.
Think, Pair, Share "How does a revolution occur without anyone going into battle?
You're telling me a country can have a revolution without shots being fired?
Weapons?
The people?
Democracy?
Overthrow?
King?
The main cause for the revolution was religious
King James II was a Catholic king ruling over a country that had been primarily
Protestant
*** Reminder: The Church of England (England's form of Protestantism) became the country's religion in 1537 when the Protestant Reformation was taking place throughout Europe
King James II's Catholicism alienated him from both parties in
parliament
. Therefore, when King James II pushed for any new policy or reformation, his intentions were viewed by parliament with suspicion.
Tories and Whigs (opposing parties in Parliament) united to depose King James and bring his Protestant daughter Mary and her new Protestant Dutch Husband, William III, to the throne.
When William III showed up with his army, King James II fled and parliament deemed his flight as
abdication
from the throne.
The Glorious Revolution
What resulted was a more powerful Parliament and the passage of a new Bill of Rights
Based on what you just learned and our warm-up discussion, would you call this a revolution? Why or why not?
King James
(Catholic)
Tories, Whigs, and almost the rest of England (Protestant)
The American Revolution
Was not an overnight occurrence
From the moment colonists began living in the new British colony, they were used to being somewhat independent from their roots in England
Colonists were used to running their own economies, encountering and dealing with the native people, running their own cities and sub-governments, growing their own farms and even passing their own legislation
The American Revolution
Although the colonists remained fairly loyal to the British crown, a series of tough acts passed through parliament that infuriated them such as:
The Stamp Act
- required that all public printed materials (i.e. newspapers, flyers, etc) have an official British stamp that cost money which went directly to England
The Sugar Act
- added a 3 cent tax to imported sugar and increased taxes on other imported daily items
The Tea Act
- required that all tea must be purchased only from the East India Company (a British tea company)
Colonists had been producing significant profits for the British government, had been heavily taxed and had been on the front lines disputing territory with the native peoples.
The American Revolution
What resulted?
A series of violent clashes between colonists and British Loyalists occurred
Can you recall the name of the most famous dispute between the colonists an the Redcoats prior to the Revolution?
Many colonists wanted to wage war against the British government
56 delegates from 12 states met in a secret meeting called
The First Continental Congress
to discuss plans on how to begin fighting a revolution
The colonists and the Continental Army, led by George Washington, declared independence and revolution ensued.
The French Revolution
The French Revolution was lengthier and the more complex of the three revolutions we will cover. The Revolution took 10 years and several changes of power occurred.
Many factors contributed to the Revolution taking place:
A feudal aristocracy still ruled over peasants which maintained large wealth disparities between rich and poor. This form of aristocracy was called
the Three Estates
The French Revolution
The Government was bankrupt and King Louis XVI continued to raise taxes mostly on the middle and lower classes
Rousseau was publishing more and becoming more popular with his critique that that kings did not have the right to 'absolute' rule, but that government was a '
social contract
' between king and people
France underwent a bad harvest which raised the price of bread
The French Revolution
When the King tried to raise taxes, the estates were outraged
Instead, they produced '
cahiers
', which were a list of their grievences and called for reforms
When the King tried to shut down the estates, the estates merged and took the
Tennis Court Oath
, and declared themselves to be a national assembly until the government was reformed and a new constitution was drawn up
The National Assembly adopted 'The Rights of Man', which states "Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights".
Read the quote above and pair-share your thoughts with a partner.
The English Bill of Rights
Passed on December 16th, 1689, the bill creates separation of powers by limiting the power of the King and Queen
Enhances democratic election
Bolsters 'Freedom of Speech'
Guaranteed rights for citizens from the power of the crown
Led to
Parliamentary Sovereignty
: gives legislative body of parliament absolute sovereignty and makes it supreme over all other governing institutions
Main influence came from the Magna Carta
The Declaration of Independence
Primary influence was English philosopher John Locke who believed that all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his "Life, health, Liberty, or Possessions".
Begins with a preamble indicating the reasons for why the colonists overthrew its government
Emphasizes on the equality of man and his unalienable rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
Highlights abuses of King George III
Indicates that a new nation is created severing all ties from Great Britain
The US Bill of Rights
They are the first 10 Amendments of the Constitution
Reserves the rights of the people that are not delegated by Congress
Key influences were the Magna Carta, John Locke and George Mason who crafted the Virginia's Declaration of Rights
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Directly influenced by Thomas Jefferson and Enlightenment thinkers Montesquieu, and Rousseau
Issued by the National Assembly in 1789 early in the Revolution
The basic principles of the French declaration were those that inspired the Revolution, such as the freedom and equality of all male citizens before the law
It became a universal model for rights-based liberal democracy that was adopted throughout the world
Compare and Contrast: How are the causes of the American Revolution similar or different to the causes of the French Revolution?
Whole Class Warm-Up:
These Learning Objectives will serve as foundational knowledge that will help carry you throughout the unit. Lecture discussion and your Guided Notes will serve as the assessment for this lesson.
What is the most compelling/interesting part of the lecture to you and why? Please write your answer on a piece of paper and hand it to me as your 'exit slip' for the day.
California Content Standards:
10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
1. Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison).
2. List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).

Actual definition of
Revolution: an overthrow and thorough replacement of an established
government or political system by the people governed.
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