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EHAP Chapter 1 Human Anatomy Orientation

Human Anatomy Orientation Presentation for Anatomy and Physiology
by

Mathies Long

on 17 August 2016

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Transcript of EHAP Chapter 1 Human Anatomy Orientation

Lets Get Oriented
Anatomy: study of structure of body parts & their relationship to one another
Physiology: how the body parts work & carry out life-sustaining activities
An Overview of Anatomy & Physiology
Principle of Complementarity of Structure & Function
What a structure can do depends on its specific form
Function always reflects structure
Figure 1.1 p. 3
Atoms: tiny building blocks of matter
Molecules: water, sugar, proteins...
Cells: smallest units of living things
Tissues: consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function
Organ: structure composed of at least two tissue types (usually 4) that perform a specific function for the body
Organ System: organs that cooperate & work closely together to accomplish a common purpose
Organism: sum total of all structural levels working in unison to promote life
Hierarchy of Structural Organization
A. Maintenance of Boundaries
So internal environment remains distinct from external environment surrounding it
Cellular – plasma membrane
Organismal – skin
B. Movement– locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility
C. Responsiveness– ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
D. Digestion– breakdown of ingested foods
E. Metabolism– all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
F. Excretion– removal of wastes from the body
G. Reproduction
cellular or organismal level
H. Growth
increase in size of a body part or organism
increase in number of cells
Necessary Life Functions
Body Systems
Figure 1.3a
Forms the external body covering
Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
Integumentary
System
Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
4 Functions:
Protect and Support
Attachment for muscle
Blood cell formation
Mineral storage
Skeletal System
Figure 1.3c
Composed of muscles and tendons
Body movement
Maintains posture
Produces heat
Muscular System
Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves
Is the fast-acting control system of the body
Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands (effectors)
Nervous System
Composed of the heart and blood vessels
The heart pumps blood
The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
Cardiovascular
System
Sister system to circulatory
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
Houses white blood cells involved with immunity
Lymphatic
System
Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Respiratory
System
Alimentary canal and accessory organs
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
Digestive System
Figure 1.3j
Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
Urinary System
Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones
Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
Male Reproductive System
Figure 1.3l
Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
Provide sites for fertilization and development of the fetus
Female Reproductive System
Examples:
Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood
Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems
Organ Systems Interrelationships
ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though there is continuous change in outside world
Homeostasis
Variables produce a change in the body
Three components:
Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)
Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Feedback is “positive” because change occurs in same direction as initial disturbance
Clotting of blood, oxytocin during labor
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Direction
Example
Negative Feedback
Positive Feedback
Away From Stimulus
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Towards Stimulus
Blood Clots
Temp Regulation
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Most feedback mechanisms are negative
The output shuts off the original stimulus
Ex. Regulation of room temp.
Heater
off
Control center
(thermostat)
Set
point
Receptor-sensor
(thermometer
In thermostat)
Stimulus:
dropping room
temperature
Effector
(heater)
Stimulus:
rising room
temperature
Response;
temperature
drops
Signal
wire turns
heater off
Figure 1.5
Balance
reason for most diseases
as we age organs & organ systems become less efficient
greater risk for illness
Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over
Homeostatic Imbalance
LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
The Basics
anatomical position: body erect, feet together
palms face forward
thumbs point away from body
standard reference point
Anatomical Position
Regions
Sagittal
Midsagittal
Frontal
Transverse
Oblique
Body Planes & Sections
Key:
(a) Lateral view
Ventral body cavity
Dorsal body cavity
Pelvic cavity
(contains bladder,
reproductive organs,
and rectum)
Abdominal cavity
(contains digestive
viscera)
Vertebral cavity
(contains spinal
cord)
Diaphragm
Thoracic
cavity
(contains
heart
and lungs)
Dorsal
body
cavity
Cranial cavity
(contains brain)
Dorsal body cavity
Ventral body cavity
Pelvic cavity
(contains bladder,
reproductive organs,
and rectum)
Abdominal cavity
(contains digestive
viscera)
Diaphragm
Thoracic
cavity
(contains
heart
and lungs)
Pericardial
cavity within
the mediastinum
Pleural
cavity
Superior
mediastinum
Vertebral
cavity
Cranial
cavity
(b) Anterior view
Abdomino-
pelvic
cavity
Ventral
body cavity
(thoracic
and
abdomino-
pelvic
cavities)
Fibular, or
peroneal
(side of leg)
Femoral
(thigh)
Coxal
(hip)
Inguinal
(groin)
Patellar
(anterior knee)
Pubic (genital region)
Digital
(fingers)
Carpal (wrist)
Antebrachial
(forearm)
Pelvic (pelvis)
Abdominal
(abdomen)
Antecubital
(front of elbow)
Brachial (arm)
Axillary (armpit)
Acromial
(point of shoulder)
Cervical (neck)
Oral (mouth)
Nasal (nose)
Calcaneal (heel)
Popliteal
(back of knee)
Femoral (thigh)
Perineal
(region between
the anus and
external genitalia)
Gluteal (buttock)
Sacral
(between hips)
Lumbar (loin)
Dorsum or dorsal
(back)
Brachial (arm)
Cephalic
(head)
Scapular
(shoulder blade)
Vertebral
(spinal column)
Acromial
(point of shoulder)
Occipital (back of
head or base of skull)
Regional Terms
Frontal (forehead)
Orbital (eye)
Sternal
(breastbone)
Thoracic
(chest)
Umbilical
(navel)
Digital (toes)
Tarsal (ankle)
Figure 1.8
Anterior
Posterior
D
I
R
E
C
T
I
O
N
A
L
T
E
R
M
s
Body Cavities
Abdominopelvic
Q
U
A
D
R
A
N
T
S
M
A
J
O
R
O
R
G
A
N
S
Biochemistry
Particles in constant motion because of kinetic energy
Liquids & gases, particles move randomly sometimes colliding with one another
Reaction occurs when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
reactants products
Chemical Equations
Synthesis
Decomposition
Exchange
Oxidation-Reduction
Definition
Formula
2 molecules form a new one
A+B AB
Molecule is broken down
AB A+B
Atoms are changed
AB+C AC+B
AB+CD AC+BD
Combination 0f a decomposition and exchange reaction
?????
indicated by a double arrow
chemical equilibrium
arrows may differ in length, longer arrow indicates major direction of reaction
Reversibility of Chemical Reactions
Particles must collide with enough force and proper alignment to overcome repulsion of their electrons
temperature
particle size
concentration
catalysts
substances that increase the rate of reactions without themselves becoming chemically changed or part of product
enzymes: proteins
Factors Influencing Rate of Chemical Reactions
Organic Compounds
Contain carbon
Most are covalently bonded
ATP
CARBOHYDRATES
LIPIDS
PROTEINS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
ATP
Energy stored as small “packets” in bonds of ATP
Breaking the high energy phosphate bonds releases energy for cellular events
Easy to store
Releases just right amount of energy - not excessive
Single system that can be used by all cells in body
Adenosine Triphosphate
H2O
H2O
ADP: adenosine diphosphate



ATP ADP + Pi + energy



Pi: inorganic phosphate group
ATP
Formation
Include sugars and starches
Classified according to size
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
CARBOHYDRATES
Insoluble in water
Common lipids in the human body
Neutral fats (triglycerides)
Found in fat deposits
Composed of fatty acids and glycerol
Source of stored energy
Phospholipids
Form cell membranes
Steroids
Include cholesterol – Used to build bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones
LIPIDS
Made of amino acids
Account for over half of the body’s organic matter
Provides for construction materials for body tissues
Plays a vital role in cell function
Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
Enzymes
Act as biological catalysts
Increase the rate of chemical reactions
PROTEINS
Provide blueprint of life
DNA and RNA
Nucleotide Bases
A = Adenine
G = Guanine
C = Cytosine
T = Thymine
U = Uracil
NUCLEIC ACIDS
ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though there is continuous change in outside world
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