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-The Plains First Nations(Sioux)-
Transcript of -The Plains First Nations(Sioux)-
A wigwam was a round building with a pointed top. It was made from tree logs, covered again with bark. Some covered with mats or hide.There were enormous mats in front of the fire, and mats on the walls.The women made the wigwam as colorful as they could. Families including kids, parents, and grandparents all lived together in one wigwam. Tipi It is made of buffalo hide fastened around very long wooden poles, designed in a cone shape. Tepees were warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Some were quite large. They could hold 30 or 40 people comfortably. Men were in charged of the outside and ,the women were in control of inside including building it, erecting it and breaking it down for transports. Food Roles of the Men Women and Children When a boy of the Plains Indian tribe was born, he would be named after an elder or ancestor of the tribe. The most important goal for a male Plains Indian as they grew up was to be tough and brave.When the boy became good enough with his skills he trained on for most of his life, the boy would go on his first hunt. When the boy finally reaches the age seventeen, he would leave his village for a time to search for his guardian spirit. When the man came back he would be ready to join the warriors of the rest of the tribe in battle. If the man was not in battle he would be hunting for buffalo for the village. Men Women of the Great Plains played a very important role in village. Each woman would own a tipi,one job that women had to do was to pitch the tipi. The women would have to gather all there goods and their tipi, whenever the chief would decide to move to another area. Another job they had to do was to tan hides. Tanning hides included skinning a buffalo then putting it out to dry in the sun. After the skin was dry they would make clothing or a tipi cover. Buffalo were very key to the people of the plains, not only did they make their clothes out of them, they also cooked and used them for food. The main job that the men would have to do was to hunt buffalo. Women were the ones who were responsible for cooking the animal. The women would do all of the cooking, and gathering. In addition to cooking, they also had to raise the children. The women didn’t always work,they also had time for fun. Sometimes they would take a break from their work and play a game called “ Shinny”. Shinny is like field hockey. Back then they would use sticks and a buckskin ball. A tribe would not be able to survive without women. Women The lives of Plains Native Americans varied depending on the tribe, but generally the life of Plains Native American children was not bad. Their parents were kind to them. They never hit their children, but they did emphasize strength. For example a baby in a Native American society was not supposed to cry. If the child had been cared for, and it still cried, then it’s mother would put its cradleboard somewhere away from camp. If the tribe’s enemies heard a bay crying that could alert them to the other tribe and give away their position. When children got a little older they learned about their culture. They were told stories, and attended ceremonies. The rituals taught them about there religion. Girls played with dolls made out of buckskin and boy's played shiny. They would also go on their first hunt around the age of 17. Growing up as a Plains Native American was not bad and definitely prepared them for tribe lives Children Religion+Art Life for the plains Indians was considered one big religious ceremony. The whole world was a mystery. The sky, sun, moon and earth were all called Wankan Tanka, the Great Spirit with no end. They were also considered individual gods. Thunder and wind were also gods. Sacred powers always worked in circles. The cycle of the sun and moon was a circle, the eagleís flight and the winds movement. Wankan Tankas symbol was a circle. It stood for the Earth, the Teepee and the Sacred Hoops. The tribes would flourish as long as the circle was unbroken. The plains Indians didn’t need a priest to see the gods face to face. They would communicate with the Great Spirit through dreams and visions.
They would do so privately, inventing their own ways to communicate. The only thing a man needed to have visions was his medicine bundle and his pipe. He would only open his bundle in private, for the things in it, pebbles, oddly shaped roots and animal bones and claws, were very sacred and had lives of their own. Not all religious ceremonies were private though. One of the best examples of this was the Sundance. It was a ritual of self-torture, where men would dance for four days without food or water until they would faint. To start the ritual, scouts would search for a cottonwood tree to ìkillî to become the sacred dance pole. They would treat it as a warrior, talking to it respectfully. Four women would chop down the tree, which was not aloud to touch the ground. The tree would be mounted in the center of camp, and the dance would begin. On the fourth day of the Sundance, warriors would run stakes through the top layer of their skin on their chests and backs. They would tie these stakes to thongs, which connected to the pole and were weighed down by buffalo skulls. They would dance around the pole in a circle, slowly moving backwards and trying to break free from the pole. Eventually, the weight of the skulls would break the thongs, and the men would be free. If any flesh was ripped off, it would be an offering to the gods. Since the dance lasted four days, many people would faint from exhaustion before the dance was over. While unconscious, they would have dreams and hallucinations that would tell them what to do and how to live their life for the rest of the year until the next Sundance. Religion was part of everyday life for the Sioux. They believed everything had a spirit. There were underwater spirits who controlled all animals and plants. High in the sky, they believed there were spirits called Thunderbirds. The Thunderbirds were the most powerful spirits except for the Great Spirit who was the most powerful of all. The Great Spirit was the Sioux God Another spirit, The White Buffalo Woman, gave each tribe a sacred pipe. They called these pipes Medicine Pipes. When lit, smokers might be able to have a vision. Visions were powerful things. They believed that dreams and visions were ways to talk to the spirits. A boy at the age of 14 would go out on a journey somewhere alone and fast until he had a vision of the great spirit in his ancestors. They held religious ceremonies all year long. There was usually only one medicine man per tribe. The medicine man performed ceremonies. Each ceremony usually honored one spirit at a time. The Sioux were great artists. Pipes Pipes were carved out of wood then decorated. Painting they're weapons. They made paint using berry juice.They usually painted scenes of war they also painted Porcupine quills Porcupine quills were used to weave geometric design on their clothes.They used natural dyes, so their colors were tan, dull white, bright red, vivid yellow, and black. Beads Quill work spread from the Woodland People to the Plains People. The People wanted to trade pelts for beads. The white man's beads came in many colors and were much easier to use than porcupine quills. Women did the bead work and men were proud of the clothes they wore. http://nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/plains/sioux.html Special Information Traveling Government and Population:(1700)33,000 Peoples:The stoney(Nakoda) and the Assinibone Location:Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba Government In a village there was a village council and they would elect a chief. That man would serve for life. Women couldn't elect. In the village council they were all adult men and they were divided into groups each group had a job assigned by the chief for example law and order or festivals. Those jobs kept switching so one group didn't have more power than another.Tribes were made up of several village so each tribe has it's own Tribal council, jobs were assigned as normal. The Seven fires council was the highest level of government and it was made up of seven chiefs of the seven tribes. The spots of the Seven Fires were reserved for chiefs but sometimes they bought assistants. Traveling Horses tribes. Horses were used for traveling and hunting like most Boats Boats were built when the Sioux ran along a river or a lake Boats specifically canoes were made of animal hides sewn onto round frames of willow's. While the hides got worn out the bark was used to make a fire. A travois was a buffalo skin spread over two long poles. Goods were piled on the buffalo skin. Horses pulled the travois. The travois was usually nothing more than parts of their tipi. The Sioux didn't used wheeled vehicles so instead they used travois. Travois A (Wakan Tanka)