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Health Problems at the Different Ages

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Dominic Etli

on 27 June 2014

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Transcript of Health Problems at the Different Ages

Health Problems at the Different Ages

Power, authority, and opportunities to make healthy choices
Risk reduction in areas of mental health, substance use, sexual behavior, violence, unintentional injury, nutrition, physical activity and fitness, and oral health
School-based and school-linked health services

Health Promotion in Adolescents

Abstract terms, possibilities, and hypotheses
Decision-making abilities increase
Adolescent egocentrism
Health-related beliefs:
Imaginary audience (everyone is watching)
Personal fable (won’t happen to me)

Cognitive Development

Changes in reproductive hormones
Pubertal sexual development
Rapid growth
Males gain muscle mass
Females gain curves (fat)
Males stop growing about 2 years later than females

Physical Development

Pediculosis capitis
Bacterial infections of skin
Fungal infections

Health Problems in School-age Child

Parents are primary influence in shaping child’s personality, behavior, and value system
Increasing independence from parents is primary goal of middle childhood
Identification with peers is a strong influence in child gaining independence from parents
Children not ready to abandon parental control

Relationships with Families & Peers

Eager to develop skills and participate in meaningful and socially useful work
Acquire sense of personal and interpersonal competence
Growing sense of independence
Peer approval is strong motivator

Developing a Sense of Industry

Enterobiasis (pinworms)
Otitis media

Health Problems in Young Child

“Autonomy” vs. “shame & doubt”
Ritualization provides sense of comfort

“Initiative” vs. “guilt”
Development of superego (conscience)

Psychosocial Development

Most physiologic systems relatively mature by the end of toddlerhood
Voluntary control of elimination
Sphincter control age 18 to 24 months

Physical growth rate slows and stabilizes during preschool years
Physical proportions change
Slender but sturdy
Graceful, agile
Posture erect
Males and females similar in size and proportion

Biologic Development

Atopic dermatitis
Iron deficiency anemia

Health Problems in Infants

Trust vs. mistrust
Importance of caregiver-child relationship
Parent-infant bonding
Importance of consistency of care
Separation and stranger anxiety
“Delayed gratification”

Developing a Sense of Trust

Examine how development influences health promotion and development of illness.
Describe health promotion activities that are critical for each age group:
Young child (toddler and preschool)
Develop concept maps for care of children with illnesses common to each age group.

Class Outcomes
Health Problems at Different Developmental Periods
Anorexia nervosa

Health Problems in Adolescents

Social forces shape sense of self
Identity achievement
Value placed on peer relationships
Intimate relationship begins to emerge in adolescence

Erickson :
Development of Identity

Importance of balanced diet to promote growth
Quality of diet related to family’s pattern of eating
Fast-food concerns
Good dental hygiene
Permanent teeth eruption
Exercise essential for development and function
Engage in group sports
School achievement and peer relationships
Increase knowledge of health and health habits

Health Promotion for School-age Child

Bladder capacity increases
Heart smaller in relation to the rest of body
Immune system increasingly effective
Bones increase in ossification
Physical maturity not necessarily correlated with emotional and social maturity

Maturation of Systems
“Physiologically begins with shedding of first deciduous teeth and ends at puberty with acquisition of final permanent teeth
Gradual growth and development
Progress with physical and emotional maturity
Average age of puberty is 12 in girls and 14 in boys

School age Child

Phenomenon of “physiologic anorexia”
Sleep and activity
Sleep problems and rituals
Dental health
Regular dental exams, fluoride, Low-cariogenic diet
Developmental concerns
Temper tantrums
Toilet training
Sibling rivalry

Health Promotion for Young Child

Importance of sucking and pacifier safety
Nutrition—breast milk exclusively for first 6 months of life and continue for at least a year
Introduce solid foods at intervals of 4 to 7 days to allow for identification of food allergies
Weaning from breast or bottle
First dental appointment at 1 – 2 years
“Back to Sleep” campaign
Immunizations and injury prevention

Health Promotion During Infancy

Grasps object, age 2 to 3 months
Transfers object between hands, age
7 months
Pincer grasp, age 10 months
Builds tower of two blocks, age 12 months

Head control
Rolls over, age 5 to 6 months
Sits alone, age 7 months
Moves from prone to sitting position, age
10 months

Motor Development

Biologic development
Double birth weight by age 6 months
Triple birth weight by age 1 year
Growth in “spurts” rather than gradually


Complex interplay of biologic, cognitive, psychologic, and social change
Change on multiple levels
Biologic maturation
Cognitive development
Psychologic development


From “The terrible 2s”
Intense period of exploration
Temper tantrums, obstinacy occur frequently

To the Preschool Years
Refining tasks learned in toddler period
Desire to please
Enjoy imaginative and imitative play

Toddler & Preschool Child
Full transcript