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SAKURAJIMA

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Allie Schneider

on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of SAKURAJIMA

SAKURAJIMA
Allie Schneider
HERE I AM.
Wait. Where in the world is Sakurajima?
Somewhere in Hamilton, NY....
JAPAN
I don't understand. Why would there be a volcano there?
Have you ever heard of the Ring of Fire?
No, silly! This Ring of Fire!
It is a ring around the Pacific plate that is home to most of Earth's subduction zones. A subduction zone is a place where one tectonic plate is shoved under another plate. When this happens, volcanoes can form!
Guess where Japan and Sakurajima are? That's right, the Ring of Fire! Meaning that Sakurajima will be an EXPLOSIVE volcano! Let's take a closer look!
Sakurajima is a beautifully shaped stratovolcano with a sass meter that is off-the-charts.
She loves attention and she will do whatever she can to capture yours. In fact, she has been exploding in a VULCANIAN style a few times a week, just to make sure you don’t forget about her.
When she was a little less mature, she kept erupting more and more until her island grew and grew and eventually grew into surrounding land, making her a peninsula (Davison, 1916)!
She loves attention so much that she even had a song written about her. Now, I’m not saying she’s over dramatic, but she loves being the center of attention.
Don't listen to the whole thing, trust me.
Wait wait wait.... are you telling me that Sakurajima basically created herself? How on Earth did she do that?
Yes she did. Let's delve more into Sakurajima's incredible past in order to better understand her at present.
1779
764
1471
3000 BCE
11000 BCE
2500 BCE
Creation of Minami-Dake
500 years after Kita-Dake went dormant, a new peak came into being. Minami-Dake, the southern peak, is a peak that we see erupting still today (Okuno, et al, 1997).
Bunmei Eruption
Sakurajima gave her largest eruption of PUMICE at this time. Her emotional breakdown physically broke down part of the Kita-Dake peak due to the heavy weight!
An’ei Eruption
Submarine eruptions created small islands around Sakurajima. Written records lead geologists to believe that a TSUNAMI and LAVA FLOWS killed at least 100 people. ASH fell for about 20 years.
Tempyo-hoji Eruption
Written records say that smoke laid over the area for a week and 62 homes burned.
The Birth of Sakurajima
Sakurajima was born in a PHREATOMAGMATIC eruption. That means, that before forming the Stratocone that we see today, Sakurajima was underwater in the Kagoshima Bay (Moriwaki, 1992).
About 5000 years ago, Kita-Dake became dormant (Okuno, et al, 1997).
Phreatomagmatic
This constant erupting and accumulation of magma eventually created Kita-Dake, the northern peak of Sakurajima (Okuno et al, 1997).
Dormancy of Kita-Dake
1914
Taisho Eruption
What do you get when Sakurajima produces 3 billion tons of LAVA and an 8000 m ASH PLUME? A peninsula! This is where Sakurajima joined her island onto the Osumi Peninsula. This explosion also produced a huge EARTHQUAKE! (Omori, 1914)
1946
Showa Eruption
Sakurajima's magma was kicking and screaming when finally this eruption created a new crater, Showa. Showa crater erupted for 2 months straight and the lava flows wiped out the entire village of Kurokami.
Current footage of the newest crater!
Allie, you post about Sakurajima every week, if she hasn't erupted since 1946, why are you posting?!

Great question, Julie!
Well actually, those were just the biggest eruptions in Sakurajima's past, but recently she has started to erupt in littler eruptions very frequently. Just a constant release of pressure!
Our little Sakuya-jima is a firecracker!
Enraged by these accusations, Kono-hana entered a doorless hut, and set fire to it. She claimed that if she had been unfaithful, the child would be harmed by the fire (Sakurajima Weebly, 2014)!
HAHA! Did you just mess up and say "Sakuya-jima" instead of "Sakurajima"?!
In Japanese mythology, there is a goddess of all volcanoes named Konohanasakuya-hime. She is known as the "Blossom-princess" and her symbol is the "sakura," or cherry blossom (Encyclopedia of Shinto, 2014).
And that is how Kono-hana created her first volcano.
Sakurajima was named with her in mind, paying respect to the cherry blossoms that she is known for.
Actually, Sakuya-jima is what she used to be called by the locals!
You see, "Sakurajima" means "Cherry Blossom Island" which, considering how eruptive Sakurajima is, doesn't make sense!
So where did this name come from (Encyclopedia of Shinto, 2014)?
Konohanasakuya-hime, or Kono-hana, as her friends call her, became pregnant a single day after marrying a heavenly kami (man). This pregnancy caused much suspicion about Kono-hana's fidelity (Wikipedia, 2014)!
These geologic hazard maps were made by Allie Schneider using current trends in eruption styles, locations of flows and wind directions of Sakurajima volcano. The volcanic ash estimate is based upon the largest eruption in recent history and is meant to be used as a boundary. The lava and PDC flows are based upon the topography in the region and recent activity on the volcano. They are intended to be used by residents in the area around Sakurajima in order to stay safe and well-informed about the possible hazards.
Nowadays, Sakurajima is just as feisty as her namesake, Kono-hana.
Current wind direction (Jan 2014-Jun 2014) dictates that ash could even reach the farther town of Aira! Although not lethal, long-term exposure to this ash could cause be toxic (Hillman, 2010).
In order to minimize potential risks, Japan recently created extensive evacuation plans and a code of conduct for enacting these plans, as a tribute to the 100th anniversary of the large 1914 eruption, mentioned earlier. One of the main risks posed is the massive amount of ash that covers Kagoshima, and new "ash removal" works and supplies have been distributed.
She dumps ash on the nearby town of Kagoshima and the town at the Northern base of the volcano almost daily.
There are also risks of lava flows and pyroclastic density currents down the Northern caldera (Aira caldera, where current activity is taking place) based upon topography (Tomiyama et al, 2011).
Possible ash coverage
possible lava flows
possible PDCs
*In Japanese, do not attempt to read.
"Karen Harpp Photo." Dive Discover. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.divediscover.whoi.edu/expedition5/images/interview_harpp3.jpg>.
"Google Maps." Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. <https://maps.google.com>.
"Sakurajima Erupting." Visual Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x4778820/japan_kagoshima_sakurajima_volcano_erupting_RMF00419.jpg>.
"Karen Confused Photo." Colgate University. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www4.colgate.edu/scene/may2002/images/15c.jpg>.
"Karen Confused Photo." Colgate University. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www4.colgate.edu/scene/may2002/images/15c.jpg>.

"Fake Ring oF Fire." Desktop Backgrounds. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.desktopbackgrounds.me/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Ring-of-Fire.png>.
"Real Ring of Fire." Love Bae Yong Joon. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://lovebaeyongjoon.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/RingOfFire.jpg>.
"Sakurajima Aerial." Unmissable Japan. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.unmissablejapan.com/volcanoes/images/sakurajima-aerial-view.jpg>.
"Sakurajima Erupting Vulcanian." Visual Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x4778827/japan_kagoshima_sakurajima_volcano_erupting_RMF00426.jpg>.
"Eruption of Sakurajima - Jessica Muñiz." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Mar. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2014.
"Sakurajima Peninsula." ABC.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.abc.net.au/news/image/4919534-3x2-940x627.jpg>.
"Phreatomagmatic Picture." MarineCSIRO. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.marine.csiro.au/nationalfacility/franklin/plans/2001/images/4_00sfig3.jpg>.
"Side Pic of Sakurajima." Sakurajima 100. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://sakurajima100.org/english/files/2013/05/ph_g1_s_02.jpg>.
"Side Pic of Sakurajima." Sakurajima 100. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://sakurajima100.org/english/files/2013/05/ph_g1_s_02.jpg>.
"Dormant Peak Picture." Volcano Cafe. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://volcanocafe.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/sakurajima.jpg>.
"Phreatomagmatic Picture 2." GNS CRI. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://gns.cri.nz/var/ezwebin_site/storage/images/media/images/auckland-figure-8/5705-1-eng-GB/Auckland-figure-8.jpg>.
"764 Eruption Picture." GBank. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <https://gbank.gsj.jp/volcano-AV/volcmap/01/fig/image/fig6.jpg>.
"1471 Eruption Picture." Photo Volcanica. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Sakurajima/JAP09_0389s.jpg>.
"Google Maps Small Islands." Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <https://maps.google.com>.
"Sakurajima Ash Photo." Skyrock.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://auto.img.v4.skyrock.net/9611/82879611/pics/3180554095_1_14_bVugznvI.jpg>.
"1914 Eruption Photo." Sakurajima 100. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://sakurajima100.org/english/files/2013/05/ph_g2_ll_01.jpg>.
"Showa Crater Photo." University College of London. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ucl.ac.uk/vco2/field-sites/Sakurajima_eruption>.
"Julie Wan Photo." WRCU FM. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.wrcufm.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/704588_4622290042626_1276064371_o.jpg>.
"Sakurajima Erupting Vulcanian." Visual Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x4778827/japan_kagoshima_sakurajima_volcano_erupting_RMF00426.jpg>.
"Cherry Blossom Photo." Hawaii Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.hawaiimagazine.com/images/content/Hawaii_Waimea_festival_Big%20Island/Blossom1.jpg>.
"Kono-hana Photo." Word Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://journeyingtothegoddess.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/315893_10150285358701962_4110978_n1.jpg>.
"Konohanasakuya-hime Photo." Photo Bucket. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://i137.photobucket.com/albums/q225/lala23wonderland/Shinto%20Goddesses/Konohana.jpg>.
"Konohanasakuya-hime Photo 2." Etsy Static. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://img1.etsystatic.com/000/0/5153817/il_570xN.169048863.jpg>.
"Fire Festival Photo." Word Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://samuraidave.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/dsc_01561.jpg>.
"Sakurajima Erupting Vulcanian." Visual Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x4778827/japan_kagoshima_sakurajima_volcano_erupting_RMF00426.jpg>.
"Kagoshima Ash Photo." Asset-Cache. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://cache3.asset-cache.net>.
"Sakurajima Hazard Map Picture." Sakurajima 100. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://sakurajima100.org/pdf/sakurahm_a4.pdf>.
"Karen Confused Photo." Colgate University. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www4.colgate.edu/scene/may2002/images/15c.jpg>.
"Clip Art Volcano." CLKER. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/a/6/1/1320998349629300711volcano_with_lava_PD.svg.med.png>.
Since there is a lot of ash and a seemingly large potential hazard, it is important for Japan to monitor Sakurajima extensively! There is a great observatory (pictured right) at the base of Sakurajima with a lot of equipment that helps volcanologists monitor and predict behavior, which they can do fairly accurately (Garcés et al, 1999)!
For more information about Sakurajima's risks and monitoring efforts:
possible lava flows
possible PDCs
"Sakurajima monitoring station Picture." Facts and Details. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://factsanddetails.com/media/2/20090817-Sakurajima%20Observtion%20Center%20volcano%20moinoring%20Image02.jpg>.
A large eruption could have devastating effects, not only topographically, but also economically on Kagoshima and other surrounding cities. Clean up is incredibly costly and dangerous and a mid-sized city like Kagoshima (not to mention the small towns around Sakurajima) would need extensive funds (Annen et al, 2003). Which is why it is great that Sakurajima is monitored so intensely!
Sakurajima has:
24 GPS stations (to measure inflation/deflation)
18 Seismograph stations (to measure seismic events)
(GBank, 2013)
NVEWS
150
Using the USA National Volcano Early Warning System we can assess the threat of Sakurajima to the area around it (Ewert, 2007).
This threat score was calculated using hazard and exposure factors of Sakurajima volcano. The necessary monitoring level for a volcano this threatening is a
4
, on a 1-4 scale.
The monitoring efforts at Sakurajima volcano are of level 4, meaning Sakurajima is sufficiently monitored.
THREAT LEVEL:
"Sakurajima Volcano Observatory." Google Translate. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=ja&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.svo.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp%2Fdefault.html>.
"Sakurajima." Volcano Discovery, Kyushu (Japan). N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/sakurajima.html>.
"Smithsonian Sakurajima Watch." Global Volcanism Program | Smithsonian. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=282080>.
"Volcano Observatory Report." Google Translate. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=&sl=ja&tl=en&u=http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vois/data/tokyo/STOCK/volinfo/gensho.html&sandbox=1>.
THE END.... or is it?
All of this makes up Sakurajima's beautiful presence on Earth.
I hope you enjoyed it!

(The Sakurajima Taisho Eruption 100th Anniversary Project, 2014)
*It is important to note that the NVEW score was calculated by Allie Schneider and not by an expert, so it should not be taken as law.
WARNING:
Volcanoes are
extremely
dangerous. Hazards and proposals for hazard mitigation at Sakurajima have been laid out in this presentation, but it is important to know that the best way to minimize risk is to abstain from getting near an erupting volcano. This is especially true for a volcano like Sakurajima that is capable of fluctuating in event type and size on a daily basis. Use caution when dealing with volcanoes, and do not upset Sakurajima.
BONUS! I'M ERUPTING!
http://webcams.volcanodiscovery.com/Sakurajima
Watch me here:
(The Sakurajima Taisho Eruption 100th Anniversary Project, 2014)
(The Sakurajima Taisho Eruption 100th Anniversary Project, 2014)
(The Sakurajima Taisho Eruption 100th Anniversary Project, 2014)
(The Sakurajima Taisho Eruption 100th Anniversary Project, 2014)
LAVA ZONE
PF ZONE
ASH ZONE
(for island only)
Works Cited
"1471 Eruption Picture." Photo Volcanica. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Sakurajima/JAP09_0389s.jpg>.
"1914 Eruption Photo." Sakurajima 100. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://sakurajima100.org/english/files/2013/05/ph_g2_ll_01.jpg>.
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Annen, C, and J Wagner. "The Impact of Volcanic Eruptions During the 1990s." Natural Hazards Review 4.4 (2003): 169-175. American Society of Civil Engineers. Web. 30 Apr. 2014.
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Garcés, Milton, M Iguchi, K Ishihara, M Morrissey, Y Sudo, and T Tsutsui. "Infrasonic precursors to a Vulcanian Eruption at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan." American Geophysical Union. 26.16 (1999): 2537-2540. Print.
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Hillman, Sarah. "A Mineralogical and Geochemical Assessment of the Potential Respiratory Health Hazard of Ash from Sakurajima Volcano, Japan.." DART Europe- EThesis. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.dart-europe.eu/full.php?id=302169>.
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Moriwaki, Hiroshi. "Late Quaternary phreatomagmatic tephra layers and their relation to paleo-sea levels in the area of Aira caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan." Quaternary International 13-14 (1992): 195-200. Print.
Okuno, Mitsuru, Toshio Nakamura, Hiroshi Moriwaki, and Tetsuo Kobayashi. "AMS radiocarbon dating of the Sakurajima tephra group, Southern Kyushu, Japan." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 123.1-4 (1997): 470-474. Print.
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"Sakurajima Volcano Observatory." Google Translate. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=ja&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.svo.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp%2Fdefault.html>.
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