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Introduction to Linguistics-Lecture 1

A school project, focusing on psycholinguistics.

Jie Cui

on 8 May 2011

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Transcript of Introduction to Linguistics-Lecture 1

Linguistics Grammar Meaning TYpes morphology syntax phonology neurolinguistics language acquisition sociolinguistics evolutionary historical discourse analysis psycholinguistics Morphemes make up words

there are two kinds: bases and affixes dogs dog (base) s (suffix) free morphemes--can be a word (dog)
bound morphemes--can't be a word (s) Phonemes Syntax Phonology the way things sound Semantics Pragmatics social rules for a language meaning in a language Psycholinguistics study of:
how language affects the way people think
how people use and understand language "the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language." "distinguishes between meanings of words." the study of the grammatical rules of a language. not meaning, just the way things fit together. three major skills

using language
changing language
following rules how meaning fits in the sentance or word

compare the accepted meaning of the word to the real meaning different in each language nothing to do with meaning International Phonetic Alphabet writing purely by phonetics Examples: the difference between right and left people associate good with thier dominant hand when you think of an action word, the part of the brain you would use activates seperating time from space children shown a video of snails racing, children could say which one went farther, but then judged the one that went farther as racing for a longer time. the white room test put a rat in a white rectangular room
hide food in the corner
when they start toward it, spin them around
they can't tell one end from the other, so they get the right corner 50% of the time

now, make a wall blue
do the same thing
they should be able to use the wall to guide them
but they can't. They still get it right 50% of the time

try it with children
they get it right 50% of the time until they are about 6 a minimal pair:

the phonemes /r/ and /l/ distinguish the words from each other

the phones in the words are [r] [i] [p] [l] "one or more phones in different environments" a phone is
"the smallest sound identifiable in a stream of speech" Some true things about language There are languages that don't have words for "right" and "left";
they use words for cardinal directions (like north and west) instead There are more than 6,000 languages spoken in the worlds
but 90%of the population speaks only 10% of them Turkish, among other languages,
has a special verb tense for gossip
hearsay. The definite past tense
The indefinite past tense Seen tenses Heard tenses The "Heard Tenses" are used to transfer information that you have not actually seen yourself by inference an as such are Indefinite Past Tenses.
The "Seen Tenses" are used when you have personal knowledge and witness of the action and are Definite Past Tenses. In linguistic terms, we call
this phenomenon
"Evidentiality" ? Do we have similar
phonomenon in English? The same words in the same order don't always mean the same thing. Some common misconceptions about language top 5 questions you don't ask a linguist
how many languages do you speak?
what are they?
which language do you study?
so you can understand movies in Arabic?
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