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Introduction to Poetry

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by

James Bittle

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Poetry

Rhyme
Rhyme Scheme
Meter
Line
The basic unit of poetry is the line. It serves the same function as the sentence in prose.
Structured vs.
Free Verse
Formal verse-
or poetry that
clearly uses
meter, rhyme,
and form.
Definitions
All Written Language
Introduction to Poetry
Hickory, dickory dock. The mouse ran
up the clock. The clock struck one, The mouse ran down, Hickory, dickory, dock.
Structured: Sonnet
Meter is the rhythmical pattern of a poem. This pattern is determined by the number of stresses, or beats in each line.
Poetry
Prose
-arranged in lines
-arranged in sentences
Free verse
Structured
-rhyme or meter
Novels, Essay,
Short Story,
Article, Etc.
Lines of poetry are arranged to emphasis
and complement the musical elements of
language.
The arrangement of the lines indicate
the best way to read the poem-stop
at punctuation-not at the end of the
line.
There's either some structure (referred to as rhythm and foot) or
the poem is considered free verse.
Example
Hickory, dickory, dock,
The mouse ran up the clock.
The clock struck one,
The mouse ran down,
Hickory, dickory, dock.
Tradtional Arrangement:
Poetry that does
not use consistent
meter pattern , rhyme, or fixed form.

Sonnets,
Villanelles,
Haiku (traditional),
etc.
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

Sonnet XVIII
William Shakespeare
Rhyme is the repetition of sounds
at the ends of words.
Poets use rhyme to lend a musical
quality to their verses and to emphasis
certain words and ideas.
Many traditional poems (like Sonnet 18)
contain end rhymes, or rhyming words at
the ends of lines.
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
A
B
A
B
C
D
C
D
E
F
E
F
G
G
Fixed form-14 lines
This fixed form-ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
is referred to as a Shakespearean Sonnet
Most poems have a structure in which
each line contains a set amount of
syllables; this is referred to as meter.
Whose woods/ these are/ I think/ I know

Meter
Shakespeare's sonnets are written predominately in a meter called
iambic pentameter,
a rhyme scheme in which each line consists of ten syllables.
The syllables are divided into five pairs called iambs or iambic feet. An iamb is a metrical unit made up of
one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed
syllable. A line of iambic pentameter flows like this:
baBoom/baBoom/baBoom/baBoom/baBoom
shall I/com Pare/thee To/a Sum/mer's Day?
thou ART/more Love/ly And/more Temp/per Ate
Stanzas
Lines of poetry are often grouped into stanzas.
A stanza in poetry is equivalent or equal to the
paragraph in prose.
Often the lines in a stanza will have a specific
rhyme scheme.
Some of the more common stanza types are:


Couplet
:
a two line stanza

Triplet
: a three line stanza

Quatrain
: a four line stanza

Cinquain
: a five line stanza
Stanzas
Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 is divided into four stanzas-3 Quatrains and 1 Couplet.
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Free Verse
Free verse is poetry that does not use consistent meter pattern, rhyme, or fixed form. Instead, the poet decides how the poem should look, feel, and sound.
once a snowflake fell
on my brow and i loved
it so much and i kissed
it and it was happy and called its cousins
and brothers and a web
of snow engulfed me then
i reached to love them all
and i squeezed them and they became
a spring rain and i stood perfectly
still and was a flower
Winter Poem

By Nikki Giovanni
Tone
The tone of a literary work is the writer's attitude toward his or her audience and subject. Usually positive or negative.

The tone can often be described by a single
adjective
, such as formal or informal serious or playful, bitter or thankful, etc.
How would you describe the tone of
Introduction to Poetry
by Billy Collins?
Theme
Theme is a central message, concern, or
purpose in a literary work. A theme can
usually be expressed as a general statement about human beings, or about life.
The theme is the writer's central idea.
Can you identify the theme of Billy Collin's poem?
Author's Purpose
Why did Billy Collins write
this poem?
An author's purpose is her or her main reason for writing. For example, an author may want to entertain, inform, persuade the reader. Sometimes an author is trying to teach a moral lesson or reflect on an experience. An author may have more than one purpose for writing.
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