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Timeline of River Valley Civilizations
Transcript of Timeline of River Valley Civilizations
Time Line of Major Events in
Early River Valley Civilizations
Nile River Valley: Egypt
There were many
key events that
occurred in the Nile
Civilization of Egypt.
5000 B.C.E- First evidence of people settling along the Nile River.
About 5500 B.C.E- Farming began and communities formed along the Nile river.
3100 B.C.E- Egyptians developed Hieroglyphics, making it where people all over the Nile River could communicate.
2600 B.C.E- The first stone pyramids were built, showing Egypt's skill in architecture , and showing they have a strong work force.
3000 B.C.E- Upper and Lower Egypt were united as one country under the first pharaoh Menes. This united small societies and brought them all together. This is referred to as the Early Kingdom of Egypt.
2125 B.C.E.- Political chaos causes Egypt to split into two regions Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south. This made the Egyptians civilization far less powerful.
2040 B.C.E.- Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I, pharaoh of Thebes fought Memphis and won the civil war, reuniting Egypt. He made Thebes the capital of all Egypt, and established the 11nth dynasty also referred to as the Middle Kingdom. By bringing the separate parts of Egypt back together Mentuhotep strengthened Egypt. They were able to produce more goods and trade with other civilizations.
1640 B.C.E- Hyksos and Semitic people from Palestine take over northern Egypt. The Egyptian people were introduced to new technology, the horse and chariot. Though Egypt lost some of their land, they did gain new knowledge, which later helped them.
Thebans ran out the Hyksos and reunited Egypt. This period is known as the New Kingdom. By taking their land back Egypt was able to produce more goods for trade.
1069 BC: The high priests of Amon split Egypt in two, the north with its capital in Tanis and the south with its capital in Thebes. This once again weakened the Egyptian civilization.
332 B.C.E.- Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, making it part of the Macedonian Empire. Egyptian culture was then influenced by the Greek ideas of Macedonia.
Indus River Valley: India
3100 B.C.E.- The Indus Valley civilization developed around the valley of the Indus River. People there began growing crops such as rice and domesticating animals.
2500 B.C.E.- People along the Indus River built two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. These cities brought in trade from other civilizations around the world.
2000 B.C.E.- The original Indus River Valley Civilization declined, possibly due to several environmental disasters. This opened the land to invaders.
1600 B.C.E.- India is invaded by the Aryans who took over the Indus River Valley, and push the natives off of their land. By doing this the Aryans expanded their empire which allowed them to produce more and grow stronger.
1100 B.C.E.- The Indo-Aryan people discovered iron, they started using the metal to make tools and weapons. Giving them a "leg-up" in war, farming, and manufacturing.
1000 B.C.E.- The holy scripture of Hinduism, the Rig-Veda was composed. Hinduism spreads through India.
700 B.C.E.- The caste system developed in India. With Brahmans (priests) taking the highest rank that can be attained by a citizen. This was one of the first examples of different social classes.
Siddhartha Gautama, a Hindu prince rejected the caste system and reached enlightenment. After his death many people followed his teachings, and strayed away from Hinduism.
327 B.C.E.- Alexander the Great conquered the Indus River Valley Civilization. Which changed Indian culture, because citizen there are influenced by Greek ideas brought by Alexander and the Macedonians.
Tigris- Euphrates River Valley: Mesopotamia
5000 B.C.E.- People first started farming and domesticating animals in Mesopotamia.
3000 BC- The Sumerian people overtook Mesopotamia and established major cities such as Ur, Erech, and Kish. These cities acted as trade markets that sold Mesopotamian goods to other countries.
2400 B.C.E.- Sumerians developed a system of writing; cuneiform. With this advancement, people all over Mesopotamia could communicate with each other. This was also used to write down laws, treaties, and religous customs.
2300 B.C.E.- After numerous attacks from outside invaders the Sumerian Civilization declined and fell. The city of Akkad then overtook Sumer. Though their reign did not last long they wrote the first code of laws in cuneiform.
2100 B.C.E.- Babylon overtook the Akkadians. Kind Hammurabi of Babylon expanded upon the written law code. His differed because he set up different punishments for major and minor offenses, a significant step towards our modern-day laws.
1500 B.C.E.- The Hittite civilization took over Babylon and dominated the region because they learned how to use iron in their weapons, which made their weapons much stronger.
600 B.C.E.- The last Assyrian King started a project. He began collecting a library of clay tablets of all the literature of Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria. This helped pass on Mesopotamias culture and heritage.
540 B.C.E.- Alexander the Great overtook the Mesopotamian empire when he conquered Persia, changing Mesopotamian culture by mixing in Grek culture.
Huang-He River Civilization: China
4000 B.C.E.- People started settling around the Huang-He River. They began growing crops like millet, rice and wheat as well as domesticating animals. They used stone tools for agriculture as well as weapons.
2200 B.C.E.- Chinese people discover Bronze and begin to make tools an weapons out of it. This helped them grow more crops, and fend off enemies more effectively.
2100 B.C.E.- Chinese people began organizing themselves into city-states and a social hierarchy or class structure began to develop. All leading to advancements in government.
1700 B.C.E.- The Shang Dynasty came to power. They developed the first writing system for China. They also divide upper and lower classes, and discover new technologies such as the chariot.
1100 B.C.E.- The Zhou Dynasty takes over the Shang dynasty, after uniting with fellow enemies of the Shang family and overthrowing them. The Zhou Dynasty implements a feudal system in China, a type of government not really seen before in the ancient world.
1050 B.C.E.- Philosophies such as Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism become more popular throughout the civilization. This leads to higher morals throughout China.
250 B.C.E.- The Qin Dynasty comes to power. The emperor reunifies previously broken apart city-states, establishes one centralized army, and standardizes the money system. All of these changes lead to a more prominent society.
206 B.C.E.- The Han Dynasty comes to power. A centralized government is established. Such innovations as the creation of paper advanced Chinese culture past that of other civilizations.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza (picture not information)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_hieroglyphs (picture not information)
AP World History Exam 2012 The Princeton review
http://qazibloggerbull.blogspot.com/2011/07/indus-valley-civilization.html (Picture not information)
http://www.julietbennett.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Egyptian_Social_Classes2.jpg (Picture not information)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuneiform (picture not information)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bronze_age_weapons_Romania.jpg (picture not information)