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Forensic Science Timeline Project
Transcript of Forensic Science Timeline Project
Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila, about 1835. National Library of Medicine . Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/orfila.html>.
Vanderburch , Hippolyte. Studies of the effects of decomposition on exhumed bodies, 1831. National Library of Medicine . Web. 1 Jan. Francis Galton (1822-1911) Francis Galton was a British scientist. He published the book "Fingerprints". This book contained the very fist proof of unique fingerprints. Two other books he published; "Decipherment of blurred fingerprints," in 1893 and "Fingerprint Directories," in 1895 also furthered fingerprint research. One of the other things he is best known for is his study of humans. Galton was the first to introduce surveys and questionnaires in order to collect data on humans. Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) Alphonse Bertillon was a French scientist. In 1879, he came up with the first system of person ID using body measurements. This system was called Anthropometry. Eventually, fingerprints took over as the main source of identification but his "mug shot method" is still used today. One interesting fact about Bertillon is that he was mentioned the Sherlock Holmes story, " The Hound of the Baskervilles." Some of his largest achievements in forensics are using compounds to preserve footprints, ballistics, and how to determine the degree of force when someone breaks and enters. Hans Gross (1847-1915) Hans Gross was a lawyer and judge in Austria. He is best known for his published books that are called the "birth field of criminalistics" . These works combined science with crime. His best known work is a journal called "Kriminologie" which was published in 1893. He also published 3 other books in Austrian which also supported this same idea. Gross founded the museum of criminalistics in Gratz which is another one of his achievements. Lastly, he taught at Chernivtsi University and taught the criminal process and criminal law. Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) Albert Osborn (1858-1946) An Austrian biologist who imigrated to the United States, Karl Landsteiner discovered in 1901 that blood could be grouped and categorized. Originally he categorized blood into 3 different categories, A, B, and C (What O blood is now). He learned that if the same blood type is transferred, no blood cells are lost unlike if you transfer a different blood type. Landsteiner also discovered polio virus. He discovered this while working at a Hygienic Institute where he studied immunity. For these achievements he was awarded the Nobel prize in 1930. Albert Osborn is know as the "Father of questioned document examination. He was an American scientist and in 1910, he published the book "Questioned Documents". This book quickly became the primary reference for document examiners. He later published 3 other books which were also referenced often. He founded the American society that houses the best document examiners in 1942 and was the first president of it. Because of all this research, documents were officially accepted as scientific evidence for crimes. Leone Lattes (1887-1954) Leone Lattes, an Italian, devised a procedure in 1915 which dried bloodstains to be grouped for forensic purposes. He used 2 different cases to prove that this method worked and helped solve the case because the blood at the scene did not match that of the person. He was a professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Turin Italy at the time of the discovery. The first book he published with his findings dealt with blood in clinical issues, heritability, paternity, and his most famous work in forensics, dried blood stains. He based his studies of an earlier scientist, Karl Landsteiner and his discovery of blood type. Calvin Goddard (1891-1955) Calvin Goddard was a US Army Colonel but is most well known for developing the comparison microscope and discoveries in forensic ballistics. The comparison microscope was originally invented to identify bullets and cases. Goddard established the Bureau of Forensics Ballistics in New York City which helped to identify firearms in America. He was an adviser when the FBI was invented to help establish a lab there. The Calvin H. Goddard Award is presented every year to someone who has shown excellence in the area of firearms identification and receive scholarship benefits. Edmond Locard (1877-1966) After Edmond Locard spent some time in Lyons, France with Alphonse Bertillon and studied criminal identification he decided to open a laboratory in Lyons, the first Forensic Lab in the world. In Lyons he was also the founder and director of the Institute of criminalistics at the University of Lyons. But what Edmond Loccard is most known for is his exchange principle. He stated that, "any action of an individual, and obviously the violent action constituting a crime, cannot occur without leaving a trace." Paul Kirk (1902-1970) J. Edgar Hoover (1895-1975) J. Edgar Hoover was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from the years 1924-1972. The FBI was first established by Teddy Roosevelt as the bureau of investigation. During his time as director, a central fingerprint file was created in 1924 and forensic laboratories in 1932. After he died, evidence was found that Hoover used the FBI to harass political leaders and activists. A Senator, Harry Reid tried to pass an amendment to removed Hoover's name from the FBI building because of power abuse. "Francis Galton." Wikipedia . Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Galton>.
Francis Galton: Fingerprints . Galton.org. Web. 1 Aug. 2012. <http://galton.org/fingerprinter.html>..
Sir Francis Galton . Huxley . Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.huxley.net/contexts/index.html>. "Alphonse Bertillon ." Wikipedia . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphonse_Bertillon>.
Bertillon Self Portrait. 1900. Alphonse Bertillon . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphonse_Bertillon>.
Alphonse Bertillon Facial Profile View. History of Forensic Art . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.forensicartist.com/history/index.htm>. SCIENTISTS "Hans Gross ." Wikipedia . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Gross>.
"Hans Gross." Department of Criminal Law and Criminalistics . 2009. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.criminaldep.chnu.edu.ua/en/history/hans_gross.html>.
Gross, Hans . Biographies . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.s9.com/Biography/Gross-Hans>.
http://www.tower.com/criminal-psychology-hans-gross-paperback/wapi/113916481?download=true&type=1 "Karl Landsteiner ." Wikipedia . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Landsteiner>.
Blood Cells . Certain Blood Type May Increase Heart Disease Risk . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.globalpharmasectornews.com/2012/08/certain-blood-type-may-increase-heart-disease-risk/>.
"Karl Landsteiner ." Jewish Virtual Library . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Landsteiner.html>. "Albert S. Osborn ." Wikipedia . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_S._Osborn>.
Probelm of Proof . Albert Osborn . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://radaris.com/p/Albert/Osborn/>.
Albert S. Osborn . The American Society of Questioned Document Examiners . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.asqde.org/about/presidents/osborn_as.html>. "Dr. Lattes Forensic Blood-Typing Cases." Forensic Science. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://csi-forensic-science.blogspot.com/2011/04/dr-lattess-forensic-blood-typing-cases.html>.
Sleight , Kenneth . "Criminal Forensics ." Forensic Sicence . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://suite101.com/article/criminal-forensics-a-brief-history-of-innovators-a254902>. "Calvin Goddard (ballistics) ." Wikipedia . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Goddard_(ballistics)>.
"About Calvin Goddard ." Calvin Goddard Award . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.goddardaward.com/>.
Calvin A. Goddard pioneered research into firearms ballistics. Daily Pic. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://dailypicl.tumblr.com/post/3603853185/calvin-a-goddard-pioneered-research-into-firearms>.
Calvin Goddard Microcomparatore. Ballistics Information's Lab . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.ballisticslab.org/La%20Balistica_Storia5.htm>. "Locard, Edmond ." eNotes . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.enotes.com/locard-edmond-reference/locard-edmond>.
"Edmond Locard ." Wikipedia. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmond_Locard>.
Locard, Edmond . The Cold Case Squad. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://coldcasesquad.blogspot.com/2012/06/edmond-locard-forensic-rock-star.html>.
Locard. Approaching Significance. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://approachingsignificance.tumblr.com/post/10054051650/criminalprofiler-the-locard-exchange>. Paul Kirk, a United States scientist, was a professor of biochemistry at UC Berkeley in California and then became head of the crime department there in 1950. He supported Locard's exchange principle. Kirk published a book, "Crime Investigation" which was a handbook for forensic lab techniques. He is also well known for his case work with bloodstain pattern analysis. "Paul L. Kirk ." Wikipedia. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_L._Kirk>.
Paul Kirk . Boston.com. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2009/09/20-week/>.
Paul L. Kirk . All about Forensic Science . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.all-about-forensic-science.com/criminalistics.html>. Hoover. J. Edgar Hoover . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover>.
"J. Edgar Hoover ." Wikipedia. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover>.
The Private Files . Bright Lights Film Journal . Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://www.brightlightsfilm.com/66/66hoover.php>. Author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) Arthur Conan Doyle was a Scottish physician who is best known for his writing of the detective Sherlock Holmes books. His writings defined the detective genre. The public was first introduced to the basics of crime investigation through reading his books. One interesting fact about him is that he believed in fairies. He suffered from horrible depression and alcoholism too. "Arthur Conan Doyle." Wikipedia. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Conan_Doyle>.
Conan Doyle . More Intelligent Life. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://moreintelligentlife.com/story/conan-doyle-spiritualism>.
Sherlock Small . Sherlock Holmes . Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.magicdragon.com/SherlockHolmes/>. SIGNIFICANT CASES Frye v. US 1923 D.C. Circuit Court James Alphonso Frye was convicted of second degree murder. During the trial he attempted to call an expert witness to testify that Mr. Frye had taken a systolic blood pressure deception test. The testimony was denied. The problem was that the test was not established enough to call it reliable. So Mr. Frye was convicted. Impact on Forensics Impact on Society It made the rules for scientific evidence in the court very concrete. It established the "Frye Standard" which determined the admissibility of scientific evidence. In forensics, this established that in order to have any substantial evidence and be able to testify to it as an expert witness, the scientists would have to use devices that are well established and well known. People were aware of the scientific evidence able to be used in a case. No one had ever paid much attention to the scientific side of crime in the justice system and now everyone seemed to know. Although many states have suppressed the Frye standard, many states still use it. Daubert v. Dow Pharmaceutical 1993 "Frye Standard." Wikipedia. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frye_standard>.
"Expert Witness Testimonial Standards ." Center for Psychiatry and the Law . Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://psychlaw.stanford.edu/expert_cases.html>. Daubert and other miners or children were born with serious limb reduction birth defects. They argued that it was caused because their mother consumed drugs made by Dow Pharmaceutical. The District Courts studied extensive research done on the subject and there was no evidence proving that this drug was the cause.Daubert brought in 8 experts whom had found research that proved his point but because it wasn't published or well known, based of the precedent of Frye v. the US, the evidence was not accepted. Impact on Forensics Impact on Society This case shows that no matter how much time passes, once a precedent is set, it is very rarely ever changed. In the court, a rule is a rule and once you change it for one case, you have to change it for others so it's not easy to make exceptions. This case let forensic sciencentists know that if they are to be used as a witness in a case by presenting scientific evidence it must be published and well established or else it will not help the case. "Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc." Case Briefs . Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/torts/torts-keyed-to-prosser/causation-in-fact/daubert-v-merrell-dow-pharmaceuticals-inc-4/>. United States v. Scheffer 1998 An air force examiner, Scheffer, was given a lie detector test to see if he had been using any drugs and it came out negative but after taking a urinalysis test it came out positive. Scheffer tried to use the lie detector test to defend himself but according to evidence rules of the court, it couldn't be used. Toxicology Department Impact on Forensics This showed that when analyzing evidence, you need to use tests that are widely accepted instead of using tests that have varying results to defend someone. Impact on Society This case showed that people were willing to use any kind of evidence to prove themselves not guilty. It showed the justice system how careful they had to be. Coppolino v. State 1968 Dr. Carl Coppolino, a former anesthesiologist, was charged with the murder of his wife, and also the murder of his neighbor's (whom he was having an affair with) husband. When Coppolino then wanted to get married to another person, his neighbor told the police that he had killed his wife and she knew because he had helped her kill her husband. Autopsy's on the body showed that there was a puncture mark of a needle on the buttock. A toxicologist was needed to determine exactly what poisons had killed them. The toxicologist came up with a method to figure out that there was a very high concentration of acid in the body. Although the evidence was no generally accepted, the court still used it because it was obvious. Coppolino was sentenced to a life in prison. Impact on Forensics This case introduced forensic toxicology into the justice system. It had been used before but not specifically to identify whether or not someone was actually guilty. Impact on Society In the justice system, it showed that the Frye principle, which determines which evidence you can use in a case, is not always followed. In this case, because the evidence was so plainly obvious, the court had to use it. OJ Simpson v. State 1994-1995 "United States v. Scheffer ." Legal Information Institute . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/96-1133.ZS.html>. "Carl Coppolino ." Murderpedia . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.murderpedia.org/male.C/c/coppolino-carl.htm>. Impact on Forensics Impact on Society OJ Simpson, a former football player was charged with the murder of his ex-wife and her friend. He hired a defense team to defend him in court. The leader of the team, Johnnie Cochran, lead the jurors to believe that the DNA and blood evidence found had been mistreated by scientists during time in the lab and was not liable. Because of Simpson's fame, the entire trial was covered on TV. In the end, there was enough evidence to prove him guilty whether or not there had been mishaps with the DNA and blood evidence. This was one of the first major trials that DNA was used for. It showed how powerful DNA was for making or breaking a case. It let forensic scientists know that this was an important investment. Because this trial was so widely publicized, many people knew about DNA evidence. OJ Simpson was black and there were also a lot of issues with bias within races. Malcom Fairly "The Fox" 1984 Fingerprint Department CSI Department Physical Science Department Biology Department Toxicology comes from the greek word toxicos which means poisonous. Mathieu Orfila is considered the father of Toxicology. One of the main focuses in toxicology is the relationship between the dose and the effects on the victim. Something interesting about Toxicology is that it is "species-specific" which means that it's different for different species. "Toxicology ." Wikipedia. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxicology>.
Forensic Toxicology . Buzzle. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/forensic-toxicology.html>.
Toxic. Science Blog . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://scienceblogs.com/seed/2007/07/19/welcome-angry-toxicologist/>. The fingerprint department keeps file of everyone's fingerprints that come in for a screening and who have been convicted of a crime. Francis Galton was the first to recognize that there were unique fingerprints. Everyone who works at child care, home care, and family care facilities must have fingerprints on record and in state databases. They also analyze found fingerprints from crime scenes. "Forensics Unit ." Waterbury Police Department . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://wtbypd.org/Services/ForensicUnitFingerprints/tabid/95/Default.aspx>.
Forensic Science Division . Dark Investigations. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.drakeinvestigations.com/ForensicScience/tabid/1511/language/en-US/Default.aspx>.
HSW 2008. HowStuffWorks . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/fingerprinting1.htm>. Latent Print Department The crime scene investagation department looks at the entire crime scene as a whole. This department takes the work of other departments to find a solution. Hans Gross was the first person to connect forensic science to the justice system. The CSI department are the people who help to solve crime through science by adding together all the evidence. Crime Scene. PI News Wire . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pinewswire.net/article/scanner-recreates-crime-scenes/>.
CSI . The Dangerous Lee . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://dangerouslee.biz/2012/03/08/the-csi-effect/>.
Crime Scene Investigator Network . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/employment.html>. Department of Ballistics The Physical Science Department is one of the biggest departments because majority of a crime scene is physical evidence. A lot of things can be found from physical evidence and sent to other departments, but you need people to find what could be useful and what wouldn't be, and that is what physical scientists do. Any kind of broken glass, hair, parts of furniture, duck tape, anything possibly involved in the crime scene is analyzed here and then moves to other departments to be investigated further. "Forensic Science Program ." University of North Texas. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.forensic.unt.edu/about_us/what_is.html>. The biology department deals with things that aren't necessarily physical evidence such as DNA or blood. Sometimes, this department receives things from other departments to be tested. Leon Lattes was the first to discover how to determine the type of blood from a dried blood stain that might be present at a crime scene or on a person. DNA, a relatively new process to solve crimes isn't always the best path because it takes a very long time to analyze DNA. "Department of Forensic Biology ." NYC Office of Chief Medical Examiner. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nyc.gov/html/ocme/html/services/biology.shtml>.
What's your DNA worth . Forbes. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/daviddisalvo/2011/11/22/whats-your-dna-worth/>. Anthropology Department Anthropology is the study of the human body. In forensics, this is the department where an autopsy occurs. An autopsy is when a scientists looks at the body and determines the cause of death. This department also specializes in telling how long a body has been decomposing. Bertillion was the first to come up with person identification by using body measurments which is sometimes used in anthropology. "Forensic Anthropology ." Wikipedia. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forensic_anthropology>.
Bones. NYC Office Medical Chief Examiner . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nyc.gov/html/ocme/html/anthro/anthropology.shtml>. This department deals with prints that are not readily visible to the eye. Whether that be finger prints, show prints, hand prints, they can find it. To preserve latent prints takes a lot of work and certain chemicals that are not easily accessible. To do this job you have to have a keen eye and patient in order to find the things you need. "Developing and Lifting Latent Finger Prints ." CSI Gizmos . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.csigizmos.com/classes/unusual_surface_handout.pdf>.
Latent Fingerprints. Very Tiny Things. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://micro.sci-toys.com/node/47>.
The Nature of Fingerprints . West Port . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/forensics/04-fingerprints/fingerprint_detection.htm>. Ballistics is the form of science that deal with fight, behavior, and bullets and guns. This department works closely with the Anthropology department during autopsy's to determine exactly how the victim was killed. Calvin Goddard, the inventor of the comparison microscope was considered the father of Ballistics. Knowing about bullets and fights can help answer clues in a crime scene. "Forensic Ballistics: What is it? ." Computer Forensic Digest . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://computerforensicdigest.com/2011/04/16/forensic-ballistics-what-is-it-2/>.
Bullets . New Grounds . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.newgrounds.com/art/view/dioccino/100-bullets>.
Guns. Executive Gun Runners. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.executivegunrunners.com/>. Impact on Forensics Impact on Society There had been a series of break-in's robberies and raping in Yorkshire. One night the offender broke into a house, tied up the couple in the house and raped the wife. He left behind footprints, a shot-gun, semen on the linen, and small specks of yellow paint on a tree branch. The paint seemed interesting so they analyzed it and actually came out with the exact car the offender was driving. So the police began to eliminate suspects. Eventually the caught Malcom Fairly who was sentenced to six life terms in prison for multiple sexual assults and robberies. This case shows how important forensics really is to the justice system. Without that paint analysis, they would have had many more suspects just from the victims recollection of the offenders appearance. Any case with extremes such as this one always startles society. But the ending to this case also let's the public know that there are multiple ways to figure out who has committed a crime. Rankin , Stephanie . "Case Study: Malcom Fairley ." Forensic Science Central . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk/malcolmfairley.shtml>. "OJ Simpson ." Wikipedia. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O._J._Simpson_murder_case>. Ted Bundy 1975 Impact on Forensics Impact on Society Theodore Robert Bundy or "Ted" was an American serial killer and rapist. He would lure his victims with charming looks or faking a disability or injury. Then he would kill them and sometimes come back to the scene to rape the decomposing body. He decapitated some of the victims and kept their heads. Bundy's name was on many suspect lists for unsolved murders. He tried to escape but was eventually captured in Florida. By now they knew it was him because there had actually been bite marks in some of the victims and forensic scientists proved that his teeth matched the mold. In the case, it is easy to see how truly import forensics is. This case was one the most media covered case where teeth marks were used as evidence. Like many other cases like these that involve forensic science, it is comforting to the society to know that they are always coming up with new ways to catch the person. "Ted Bundy ." Wikipedia. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Bundy>. Impact on Forensics Impact on society The Chamberlain Case 1980 Many people have heard the phrase, "A dingo ate my baby!" Well this is the case where that phrase comes from. In Australia, Lindy Chamberlain apparently left her 2 daughters, a 4 year old and a 10 month old in the tent alone. Then when she returned the 10 month old was gone. Scientists did blood stain analysis on the blood that was in the tent and blood that was later found near a dingo cave. The blood seemed to match Lindy and other clues such as the baby's clothing lead to her conviction. But 30 years later, they came to the conclusion that the scientists had mishandled the evidence and Lindy Chamberlain was set free. This case shows how forensics can help or hurt a case. In the instance, because the blood analysis evidence was mishandled, the results were not accurate. Because this case received so much media coverage, and the case turned out to be wrong. It showed that forensics and still overturn a case after a long amount of time and eventually bring justice. "How Bloodstain Analysis Works ." HowStuffWorks. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/bloodstain-pattern-analysis5.htm>. Impact on Forensics Impact on Society The Lindbergh Kidnapping 1932-1936 Charles Lindbergh, the young son of a famous pilot, was kidnapped. His father paid a $50,000 ransom but Charles was never brought home. Two months later, the body of the boy was found close to his house. They began to track the circulation of money for the ransom and it lead to Hauptmann. There was over $14,000 of the money in his garage. He said he was keeping it for a friend but forensic scientists used handwriting analysis to match is handwriting to that on the ransom notes and he was convited and executed 4 years afterwards. This is a case where it would have never been solved without the forensic scientists. It impacted forensics by proving that handwriting analysis was worth investing money into. This event effected society by showing another of the methods that forensic scientists use to figure out who did the crime. The Night Stalker 1984-1985 Impact on Forensics Impact on Society A serial killer, Richard Ramirez, broke into houses while people slept and murdered 13 people and assaulted many others. Now that everyone was worried, a teenaged boy saw a van driving through his neighborhood and wrote down the license plate number. When there was a report of an attack in that neighborhood that night, police tracked the car. Although the car was now abandoned, there were fingerprint marks which was enough to track down who it was and capture him. He was sentenced to death and is currently on death row. This case showed how just because there is no evidence that is easily visible doesn't mean that there isn't a latent print of a finger or hand. This case impacted society by showing the public how important their role can be in the justice system by informing the police and forensic scientists about what they know. Forensic Science Departments "10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics ." Disorderly Conduct. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crimin"10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics ." Disorderly Conduct. Web. 6 "10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics ." Disorderly Conduct. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crimin"10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics ." Disorderly Conduct. Web. 6 THE END By: Natalie Willmschen