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The Cuban Missile Crisis

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Alex Fleming-Brown

on 26 June 2014

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Transcript of The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis
Background
Cuba was a Spanish colony until 1878
Slavery was abolished in 1886
War of Liberation 1868-1898
Very progressive country in the mid 20th century.
Fulgencio Batisita begins his first term in office in 1940.
He remains in office until 1944.
Batista returns to office in 1952
The Main Groups in the Revolution (1953-1958)
1959-1961
President Batista resignes and flees
Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba
Castro's new currency- the 'Peso'
The U.S impose and embargo only allowing essential foods and medicine
U.S impose a trade embargo on Cuba - 1960

Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro born on 13 August 1926 in the South-East of Cuba.
Castro studied law at the University of Havana.
1953,after unsuccessful attempt to overthrough Batista, Castro is imprisoned for 15 years
He is quickly freed under amnesty and he flees Cuba
1956,Castro and Guevara landed in Cuba with a small band of insurgents, known as the '26th of July Movement', and began a guerrilla war against the government.
December 1958, Castro launched a full-scale attack and Batista was forced to flee.
February 1959, Castro was sworn in as prime minister of Cuba.
John F. Kennedy
He was born on 29 May 1917 in Massachusetts,
He graduated from Harvard in 1940.
1960, Kennedy won the party's presidential nomination.
At 43, he was the country's youngest president
Kennedy's years in power were marked by Cold War tension, together with domestic reforms - expanding the civil rights of African Americans.
Build up to "The Bay of Pigs"
Castro nationalised American companies in Cuba, the Americans prevented all aid from reaching Cuba, and all imports of Cuban sugar in response.
Suffered economic blow
The Monroe Doctrine
John F. Kennedy
Before the Crisis
Cuban freedom fighters-'26th of July Movement'
The Batista government

Lead by Fidel Castro, Raul Castro, Che Guevara, Frank Pais and Camillo Cienfuegos
Republic of Cuba
Batista
Cantillo
Fidel Castro
Raul Castro
Che Guevara
Franck Pais
Anger towards USA
Support from USSR
In 1960, the USSR signs agreement to buy 1 million tonnes of Cuban sugar every year.
Khrushchev purchased Cuban sugar in exchange for Soviet fuel when Cuba were suffering economically
Fellow communist state!

Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Born in 1894 at Kalinovka near to the Ukraine border.
Son of a miner.
Fought for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War.
Khrushchev worked for the Communist Party in Kiev and Moscow.
March 27th 1958, Khrushchev became Premier of the USSR whilst holding the post of First Secretary after Bulganin was pushed to one side.
The Bay of Pigs
What Happened?
On April 17, 1961. Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow the Cuban government.
Although the Cuban air force was damaged by early US air strikes, there were still planes left to attack the invaders.
It took too long for the troops and ammunition to get off the ships. Before the ammunition could be unloaded, Cuban planes sunk the invader's ships.
Paratroopers who were supposed to slow down Castro's forces on the ground, landed at the wrong place or in the swamps.
Soon the invaders were surrounded by a much larger force and were running out of ammunition. They tried to retreat, but most were eventually captured and put into prison.
The results were disastrous for the US. The government and the CIA looked weak. It strengthened Castro's government within Cuba and caused him to look to the Soviet Union as a military ally
The Bay of Pigs
Why did it happen?
American corporations and wealthy individuals owned much of Cuba's productions
Batista did little to restrict their operations and was also anti-communist.
Castro disapproved of the approach Americans took to their business.
Castro believed Cubans needed to assume more control of their nation. “Cuba Sí, Yanquis No” became one of his most popular slogans.
So the USA needed to overthrow Castro to protect it's intrests
The Cuban Missile Crisis
What happened?

September 11: Soviet Foreign Minister, warns that an American attack on Cuba could mean war

October 14 : A U-2 flying over Cuba obtains photographs of missile sites

October 14 - 17: The Joint Chiefs of Staff strongly advise Kennedy to make an air strike

October 18: Gromyko assures Kennedy that Soviet Cuban aid has been only for the "defensive capabilities of Cuba."

October 22: Congressional leaders are shown the photographic evidence of the Soviet missile Cuban installations and the President addresses the nation

October 22: U.S. military forces go to DEFCON 3

October 23: Khrushchev states that there is a, "serious threat to peace and security of peoples."

October 24: Soviet ships, en route to Cuba, reverse their course except for one. US Military forces go to DEFCON 2

October 25: JFK claims that the Soviet Union are responsible

October 26: Khrushchev proposes to remove his missiles if Kennedy publicly announces never to invade Cuba

October 27: An American U-2 is shot down over Cuba killing the pilot, Major Rudolf Anderson

October 27: A U-2 strays into Soviet airspace, near Alaska, and is nearly intercepted by Soviet fighters

October 27: Kennedy states that he will make a statement that the U.S. will not invade Cuba if Khrushchev removes the missiles from Cuba

October 28: Khrushchev announces over Radio Mosco that he will remove the missiles from Cuba

In return the US agrees to withdraw of US nuclear missiles from Turkey ending the Cuban Missile Crisis
Conclusion
Crisis was a disaster for the U.S and a potential threat to mankind.
Kennedy was initially wrong to allow for an attack to be launched onto the Bay of Pigs.
The USSR were wrong to position rockets on Cuba and hence threaten the U.S
Castro was wrong to allow for the USSR to position rockets on Cuba.
The trade embargo that was first imposed in 1960, is active until this day and it has left huge implications on the economic development of Cuba.
The crisis has left a significant mark on Cuba and international relations between the USSR (Russia), the U.S and Cuba.
Camillo Cienfuegos
quick quiz
Who is this man?
Who was the president before JFK ?
What did the USSR buy from Cuba?
Which more serious: DEFCON 3 or 2?
Where were the Cuban exiles trained?
Full transcript