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Research Assignment - First Nations

Tribes Assignment By: Soham
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Soham Patel

on 17 December 2012

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Transcript of Research Assignment - First Nations

The tribe I am Researching is Ojibwa. Name of tribe How did they get along with the European setters? How did they govern themselves; make decisions? Where did they live? Describe a typical dwelling or home. Their typical dwelling was the wiigiwaam (wigwam), built either as a (domed-lodge) or as a (pointed-lodge), made of birch bark, juniper bark and willow saplings. Describe something unique about their culture. Clans: Family was very important to the Ojibwa. Families were called clans. When a baby was born, that child became a member of its mother's clan.

No Names: People were named after things in nature. But the Ojibwa did not call each other by their names. Instead, they called each other by their family name - Brother, Aunt, Grandmother. It did not matter if you were a great-great Grandmother. You would still be called Grandmother.

Clan Names: Although the Ojibwa did not call each other by name, they did give each clan a name. Clans had animal or bird names.

Marriages: You were not allowed to marry someone from your own clan. When two people married, the groom moved into the wife's family wigwam for about a year. After that, the young couple built a wigwam of their own.

Winter Camps: The Ojibwa lived in various camps throughout the year, gathering and storing food. It was only in the summer that they lived in villages. Research Assignment On First Nation People I am going to show
you my research on the Ojibwa
tribe (which is an
Algonquian Tribe) So here it is..... To what Language group do they belong to? They belong to the language group of Algonquian Linguistic Group http://www.georgeaugustkoch.com/Writings/OjibwaIndians.htm The Ojibwa lived in dome-shaped wigwams.
[Place Wise ] they lived mainly in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Ontario. http://www.geo.msu.edu/geogmich/ojibwe.html What was their economy based upon? (words from Nathaniel Butter) http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_type_houses_did_ojibwa_people_live_in some unique things in their culture were: http://nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/
northeast/ojibwa/villagelife.html . Hope you guys enjoyed...
Thanks for watching!!!
By : Soham Patel 7.2 http://www.ece.gov.nt.ca/Divisions/kindergarten_g12/Social%20Studies%20Gr_5-6/Grade%205_People%20and%20Stories%20of%20Canada%20to%201867/Grade%205_People_Ch3.pdf For more info about the Ojibwa tribe click on the link below!!
Or just copy, cut & paste this website! Or (type it)>>>:] p.s. Hope you like this link Mr. Daniele!
This is where i got a lot of info... and learned a lot How did they govern themselves; make decisions? How about a video on this tribe! How they governed
Several families, related through the mothers and grandmothers, lived in each longhouse. One of the older women was selected as leader of the longhouse. The families of two or more longhouses made up a clan. A clan was a group of about 15 or 20 families who were related through several generations to a female ancestor. A clan included grand parents, aunts and uncles, cousins, as well as the men who had married into the family. A matron, or clan mother, led each clan. Each clan mother chose male sachems, or chiefs, to sit on the village council to represent the clan interests. Tribal councils were made up of men from the various village councils. Tribal councils met at least once a year to discuss general matters. A chief’s decisions were often influenced by the clan mother http://www.ece.gov.nt.ca/Divisions/kindergarten_g12/Social%20Studies%20Gr_5-6/Grade%205_People%20and%20Stories%20of%20Canada%20to%201867/Grade%205_People_Ch3.pdf Strange persons were living on the continent. Possibly spirits in the form of men or just extraordinary people. A council was called to discuss the information and an expedition was planned to seek out the new strangers. The expedition was led by a shaman. The Anishinabeg traveled east from the Great Lakes toward the territories of the Ottawa. It was here they discovered a clearing where the trees were cut cleanly and not from stone axes. Possible explanations for the felled trees was a huge beaver, but they also believed it may have been the work of the strange people they were seeking. The Anishinabeg explored further down river and discovered the remains of a winter village that had been occupied by the strange men in the previous season. They were encouraged to search the river edge further and encountered a settlement. Strange people greeted them. The Anishinabeg liken the foreigners to squirrels because of the way they stored their goods. They did not dig holes in the ground like a squirrel, but they built up a wood case around their provisions in a hollow of a tree. They traded for cloth, metal axes, knives, flint, steel, beads, blankets, and firearms in exchange for furs. Upon returning home the Anishinabeg explorers recounted their encounter with the strangers. The trade goods were prized and the Anishinabeg entered into a commercial initiative, establishing regular trade with the French. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/canshield.html ads us to the next facet of the Ojibwe economy, trading. It is commonly known that when the Europeans came to North America, the French in particular, were aggressive in trading for furs. According to Vennum wild rice was also grown and traded for things like rum. However, "beaver pelts were the principal articles of trade." (Houston 5) This is the turning point of the economy and culture of the Ojibwe. From this point the Ojibwe began to expand. "They secured firearms from the French and later the English". (Howard 13) By gaining these new firearms the tools of the Ojibwe would begin to change. Hunting was made easier, however, these weapons would become necessary to keep up with the demands for more furs.

"Some of the Ojibwa bands pushed west beyond the lakes and willingly changed from fishing and woodland hunting people into horsemen and trappers, wide-ranging buffalo hunters..." (Houston 5) At the same time, "the Ojibwe were an important part of this early fur brigade, hiring themselves out to the Hudson's Bay Company or Northwest Company" (Houston 5) During this transitional period it is important to note that this change effected only the economy. In this transition we can see the Ojibwe begin to adapt to the "newcomers". This began an adaptation into a European lifestyle.

As the European influences would grow stronger, over time the Ojibwe economy would shift from a communal economy to that of a more capitalistic economy. Today, the traditional economy of hunting and fishing for food has been replaced with supermarkets, gas stations, and chain stores. However, this assimilation into Capitalism enabled the Ojibwe to survive as a culture.

Prior to contact with Europeans gender played a critical role in the functions of the Ojibwe. After contact with Europeans this did not change. In fact, the only aspect of the Ojibwe culture that would have been drastically affected by this would be the political aspect, and of course history. There is little written about the Ojibwe people prior to contact with Europeans in the early 1600's. For this reason we will be drawing conclusions based upon what we know about the Ojibwe at this early date. Based upon these assumptions we will be able to look at how the economy has changed since contact with Europeans and how it has effected everyday lifestyle of the Ojibwe.

The Ojibwe are primarily located in the "states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota and the Canadian province of Ontario." (Howard 13) This area is most commonly known as the Great Lakes area. These lakes are probably the greatest contributing factor to the livelihood and well-being of the Ojibwe. This supports the claim made by James Houston, the Ojibwe were originally a fishing and woodland hunting people.(Houston 5) This is supported by Harold Hickerson when he said speaking of the Ojibwe, "They lived in groups of perhaps 100-150 and made their living chiefly by fishing and hunting." (Hickerson 13)

At this point it is necessary to point out that in this culture it is the men who do the hunting. In her research on the gender of the Ojibwe, Katarina Huck noted that according to Rev. Peter Jones, "the men... are naturally stronger and faster than women because their life consists of hunting and fighting." According to Hickerson "they wore skins of moose, deer, and caribou, and pelts of beaver and otter." (Hickerson 13)

Before their contact with Europeans the tools they used were rough to say the least. Hickerson goes on to describe that "to catch fish and game, spears and arrows [were] tipped with flint or bone, fishing nets [were] made of plant fibers". Although the primary source of food came from hunting and fishing, the Ojibwe also found wild rice to a sustainable crop. Thomas Vennum Jr. has spent a good deal of time looking into the value that wild rice had to the Ojibwe people. http://ksuanth.wetpaint.com/page/Ojibwe+Economy They`re economy was also based upon survival, food,what they made, governing, and home or houses on the next section you are gonna have difficulty
reading so just zoom okay mr.daniele What they`re economy was based on...? What they lived in

People lived in longhouses made of poles, covered with flat sheets of bark. Each longhouse was about 11m, wide and between 45 and 55 m. Inside, the longhouse was one large open building with a central corridor. Several fire pits burned along this corridor, and families lived in areas separated by partitions on each side of each fire. The longhouses were like small apartment blocks, where all of the relatives lived close to each other. In this way, members of a family could work together and help one another. Some longhouses were built specifically for religious ceremonies. Others were used as storage buildings. What they ate
The women and children cultivated maize (corn), beans, and squash. Women also collected a variety of plant foods, such as seeds, nuts, and berries. They gathered milkweed, mustard grass, and skunk cabbage for salads and stews. They ate meat, particularly deer, but also bear, beaver, and elk that the men hunted. The men also trapped geese, ducks, and pigeons and fished for whitefish, trout, and sturgeon. In the spring, families tapped the maple trees to make maple syrup and maple sugar. The main everyday meal was saga mite; a soup made of maize, with pieces of fish, meat, or squash added. Saga mite was boiled slowly in large clay pots. A favourite food was corn bread, made of cornmeal, deer fat, and sometimes dried berries.
What they made
Women made large clay cooking and storage pots. They wove baskets, nets, dolls, and ceremonial masks from plant fibres. Men made and decorated clay smoking pipes. They made light, efficient birch bark
Canoes for summer travel. For winter travel, they built wood or bark toboggans and snowshoes made from wood and sinew. Leather from the hides of animals, particularly deer, was made into clothing, quivers, drum covers, and containers. Wood was split and carved into many tools, such as shafts for arrows and spears. It was also used for food bowls, mortars and pestles for crushing seeds, and ceremonial masks. Some people became master carvers who added beautiful designs on the things they made.
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