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The World After War

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Patrick Keating

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of The World After War

Unit 1: The Aftermath: The World
Following World War II

What to do with Nazi Germany?
How should the Nazi War Criminals (Goebbels, Himmler, Goring) be punished? Why?
What should the Allies do with the German people?
The Nuremberg Trials
Who was responsible for the Holocaust in your eyes? Why?
Is the death penalty a legitimate punishment? Why or why not?
The Nuremberg Trials
War crimes trial of the Nazi Party officials; took place in Nuremberg Germany
International military court
Charged with planning the war, committing war crimes and other crimes against humanity, and conspiring to commit the crimes
Many testified as to what went on in the concentration camps
Himmler - Commander of the SS
Goebbels - Propaganda Minister
Hitler - Fuhrer
Goring - President of Reichstag
Suicides:
Results
Twelve sentenced to death
Seven jail for life or less
Three aquitted
Many (Adolf Eichmann) escaped
Aftermath of the Holocaust
After twenty years of persecution, what happens to those (most notably people of Jewish descent) that survived the Holocaust?
Establishment of the United Nations
Founding of Israel
Many European Jews moving to Palestine (following WWII)
Zionism --- the movement to seek a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Led by David Ben-Gurion
Strongly supported by many prominent Americans
An organization for world peace
Discussed during Atlantic Charter, Yalta Conference, and Potsdam Conference
Made up of the General Assembly and the Security Council
15 member Security Council
5 Permanent Members - US, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, China
10 rotating members
Addresses military and political problems - has the power to veto action proposed by General Assembly
General Assembly
All nations are members
First Order of Business:
Secure a homeland for the European Jews
Proposed a split state between Palestinians and Jews -- immediately rejected by Arab states
Wartime alliance of US and Soviet Union began to show signs of strain
Even after victory, founding of UN --
USA and USSR becoming increasingly hostile to one another
Confrontation and competition between the two counties that lasted from 1946-1990 became known as the Cold War
Origins of the Cold War
Two Sides
--- Two Sets of Goals
Soviet Union worried about security -- had been invaded twice by Germany
How do you think they wanted to treat Germany?
Keep Germany weak
Control countries in between the two
Began encouraging communism in European countries -- claimed it was better than capitalism
Believed that capitalism would try to destroy communism
American concerns
Focus on economic issues
Believed economic growth (and trade) was the key to world peace -- depression had caused WWII
Democratic government protects free trade/capitalism and gave the world that best chance for peace
YALTA
Europe's liberated countries will get relief
Work together to improve Europe
UK, USSR, US have supreme authority of Germany
Divide it to secure peace
Reparations go to Allies that need it most
USSR does not have to give up Polish territory taken in WWII
(Curzon Line)
POTSDAM
Stalin - USSR; Churchill/Atlee - UK; Truman - USA
Separates Germany into 4 zones
Disarmament and demilitarization of Germany
USSR gets massive reparations
Poland gains Western territory
The Iron Curtain descends...
Continue working on your handout regarding the Potsdam or Yalta Conference
You may partner up
No more than two to a group
The Berlin Airlift
USSR gaining much influence in Europe -- many pro-Soviet governments (notably Poland, Romania) worked to establish communist rule
Became known as
satellite nations
Fighting the Iron Curtain
A US diplomat,
George Keenan,
suggested a policy of
containment
Keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic, and military actions
The Truman Doctrine
Stalin attempting to influence governments in Iran, Turkey, and other Middle Eastern countries
The doctrine claimed:
US goal -- free peoples who are resisting communism will receive economic and military aid
A pledge to fight communism worldwide
The Marshall Plan
Europe lays in ruin following WWII
Economies faltering, people starving, political chaos
"
European Recovery Program"
Would give European nations American aid to rebuild their economy
Seen as THE complement to Truman Doctrine
Belief that Western Europe's prosperity depended on recovery of Germany
Soviets want reparations
Battle over Germany brought the US and USSR to the brink of war
Western Germany
established
Britain, France, US combine their zones
Soviet zone --- Eastern Germany
Berlin
Soviets cut off all supplies to West Berlin
For nearly a year, cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine, and coal
A symbol of American determination to stand by and protect Germany
NATO Established
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
A mutual defense alliance -- agreed to come the defense of any country that was attacked
For first time, US had committed to keep the peace in Europe
Warsaw Pact
Soviet response to NATO as they feared the growing western alliance
Warsaw Pact -- a military alliance in Eastern Europe
United States usher in the
Atomic Age
USSR attempts to develop atomic energy
Baruch Plan -- US plan that would impose penalties on those that did not follow rules on atomic weapons
Rejected by USSR -- arms race begins
US and USSR quickly work hard to build up their arsenals
Entering the Atomic Age
Communism in China
Led by Mao Zedong -- rallied many of the peasantry by giving them plots of land
US sent economic and military aid to those resisting spread of communism in China
Mao eventually won out and China was now communist
Complete the handout for homework
China fell to the Communists
America shocked
Soviet Union and China form alliance

Japan
Douglass MacArthur in charge of occupied Japan -- introducing democracy and capitalism
Complete occupation by the US military until 1952
Japan became the key to defending Asia
(much like West Germany was the key to Europe)
The Korean War
Soviets and Americans go to Korea after WWII to disarm Japanese troops there
Country divided at the 38th parallel
An attempt to reunify Korea failed --
Communist government in North, democratic government in the South
South based out of Seoul
North based out of Pyongyang; led by Kim Il Sung
Only 500 US troops remain -- USSR begins supplying N. Korea with weapons of war and encouraging them to take over the entire peninsula
The Korean War
North Korean forces invade the South in mid-1950, quickly overrunning S. Korean forces
UN votes to intervene in Korea - sends over 500,000 troops (90% American)
Join nearly 600,000 S. Korean troops
General Douglas MacArthur placed in charge of troops
China, Korea, and the United States
The attack by China in Korea brought the world to the brink of World War III
MacArthur wanted to wage a full scale war against China
An attack on China would lead to Soviet Union to enter the war
Also led to conflict between Truman and MacArthur
Chinese forces push UN forces south and capture Seoul
"The US imperialists have adopted a hostile attitude towards us... while paying lip service to nonaggression and nonintervention. From the information we got, they wanted to calm China first and after occupying North Korea, they will come to attack China."
-Jou En-lai, Chinese foreign minister
Conflict Between Truman and MacArthur
Truman did not like MacArthur's plan -- did not want war with China
MacArthur publicly criticized the president and appealed to Republican leaders -- caused Truman to remove him from his post
Americans viewed MacArthur as a war hero -- were very upset with Truman for removing the general
Truman became very unpopular - was booed regularly at speeches
Allowed for Republicans to win the election of 1952
Election of 1952
Issues:
Korean War had become a bloody stalemate
Peace talks making little progress
Truman decides not to run for third term
An End to the War
Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) v. Adlai Stevenson (D)
Many saw Stevenson as out of touch intellectual
Defended Truman's policies
Voters didn't want more of the same
Eisenhower had a patriotic appeal -- reassured voters that the US would be a strong power in the Cold War
I Like Ike - a look at campaigning
Eisenhower had promised to end the war -- kept that promise by using military force to get peace negotiations going
Hinted at using nuclear weapons to end the conflict
July 1953 -- armistice signed
Korea divided into two countries at the 38th parallel
54,000 Americans dead
Over 100,000 wounded
1.5 million Chinese and Koreans dead
Did the ends justify the means?
Work in groups and complete the political cartoon analysis handout.
Make sure all group member's names are on the handout.
Define the assigned term(s)
1-2 group members must present information to class
Group 1: National Security Council
Group 2: HUAC
Group 3: Hollywood Ten
Group 4: Alger Hiss
Group 5: Julius and Ethel Rosenburg
Group 6: Internal Security Act
Fighting Communism Abroad
Eisenhower took a tough stance on communism
Brinkmanship -- called for threatening all out war to stop communism
(willing to go to the brink of war)
Encouraged by Sec. of State John F. Dulles
Chicken
Khrushchev takes power in Russia
Accuses Stalin of committing many ruthless crimes
Crushes protests in Hungary --
US refuses to give aid (fear of all out nuclear war)
Central Intelligence Agency established
Pursued US goals in covert ways -- spying, espionage, etc
Took action in Iran and Guatemala
Suez Crisis
Egypt -- Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal
Israel attacks -- with help of Britain and France
USSR threatens to intervene
US acts as intermediary -- Arab nations and USSR now friendly
Eisenhower doctrine -- aid to all Middle Eastern countries opposing communism
U2 Incident
Spy plane shot down over Soviet Union
Francis Gary Powers (pilot) admits to spy mission
Eisenhower refuses to apologize, but promises to halt U2 missions
The Second Red Scare
From the activity, you should have a brief understanding of the following terms:
HUAC
National Security Council
Alger Hiss
The Rosenburgs
Hollywood Ten
Internal Security Act
McCarthy saw citizenship as an unwavering belief in democratic and capitalist ideas
What is democracy? Capitalism?
How are these different than communism?
Fighting communism became an American pastime...
Somewhere in your notes...
Define CITIZEN
Compose a list of five (5) 'commandments' of citizenship.
In other words, what are five things a citizen should do?
Share these with someone sitting near you.
Class list....
So what did
McCarthy
do?
Claimed he possessed a list of communists in the United States government and military
Accused many government officials, entertainers, educators, and union officials of being a part of, or sympathizers to, the Communist Party
Americans encouraged this behavior -- fearing a Communist revolution in the US
How did he prosecute suspect communists?
HUAC hearings -- televised, often major media events
Tactics -- intimidation, tough questioning, interrupting, etc.
The average American -- fearful of communism, so they supported it
Even the ACLU, well known for defending freedoms of many groups of individuals, expelled a founding member because she was thought to be a communist
The Second Red Scare had captivated America and had the entire country fearful of communism
Reaction:
Many of those questioned were innocent
Responded fiercely and proclaimed their innocence -- were still blacklisted
Outcome:
Anti-Communist sentiments overcame America
Thousands falsely accused -- lost jobs, broken friendships and families
Army-McCarthy Hearings
McCarthy eventually claims Communists have infiltrated the military -- 35 days of hearings failed to produce any substantial evidence (over 20 million people tuned in)
Senate condemns McCarthy for conduct unbecoming a Senator
-- serves rest of time in Senate, avoided by many of his colleagues; died of alcoholism at age 48
"I think it is high time that we remembered that the Constitution, as amended, speaks not only of the freedom of speech but also of trial by jury instead of trial by accusation."
-Margaret Chase Smith, R-ME
So what lesson do we learn? What does McCarthy teach us?
The Arms Race: Nukes to NASA
August 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 1949: USSR detonates first atomic bomb
The development of ICBMs allowed for the creation of rockets that could carry material into outer space
USSR launches Sputnik -- the first artificial satellite
Signaled the beginning of the Space Race -- the battle to conquer outer space between the USSR and US
Important development...
ICBM: Inter-continental Ballistic Missile
Primary carrier of nuclear weapons WAS -- bombers
Missiles allowed for long range attack with less risk
Range -- greater than 3,500 miles

MAD -- Mutual Assured Destruction
If USSR attacks US, US will launch full attack on USSR
Development of nuclear submarines allowed for 'secondary strikes'
This kept the two powers from attacking one another
How did Americans protect themselves from a nuclear attack?
Formation of Civil Defense Teams -- in charge of organizing rationing, community shelters, crisis prevention, etc.
Fallout Shelter
Many Americans began building bomb shelters in their basements and on their property to protect from a nuclear attack
The Arms Race Begins
Creation of
NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Agency created to promote space technology
National Defense Education Act
Many believed that the Soviets had surpassed the USA in terms of education because they developed superior technology
Federal law that gave money to improve education in science, math, and foreign language
UN and American troops sent to Korea -- able to push the N. Koreans back to the
Yalu River (border with China)
Chinese forces launched a massive attack against them -- prompting MacArthur to ask Truman to use the atomic bomb on China
Full transcript