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History of Healthcare
Transcript of History of Healthcare
History of Healthcare
Why is history important?
What things influence your life today that have made you consider a career in healthcare?
Historical events shape our understanding of medicine – where do we go from here? Keeps us from repeating mistakes and helps make technology/medicines safer
History of Healthcare
We have practiced medicine in some form since the beginning of time
Many cultures influenced our belief in the healthcare industry today
Their contributions in early medicine have been significant for our understanding of today's medicine
Healing was practiced in a variety of ways
Religion played an important role - it was commonly believed that illness and disease were a punishment from the gods.
Religious rites and ceremonies were practiced to eliminate evil spirits and restore health
Trepanning was a practice used to
treat insanity, epilepsy, HA
Some early medicines (herbs) used then are still used today:
Poisonous nightshade plant
Used for muscle spasms
Came from opium poppy plant
used for pain
From the foxglove plant
used for irregular heart rate
Bark of the cinchona tree
used for fever and malaria
Islamic civilization rose to prominence in Middle Ages
Arab physicians began studying anatomy, pharmacology, etc
Renewed interest in medical practices of the Greek/Roman
Reason began to replace belief in spiritual or superstitious causes for illness. Doctors began to keep careful notes on their cases.
Rhazes was a Persian doctor.
He wrote about the differences between smallpox and measles.
He provided a clearer understanding of the causes of disease.
The Middle Ages
Worldwide epidemic in Asia killed ¾ of the population – bubonic plague
transmitted by rodents, bacteria that invades lymph nodes and sets up infection through blood
infected person usually dies within 6 days
Arab physicians used their knowledge in chemistry to create medicines
Apothecaries was created
Barbers performed cataract surgery, limb amputations, and phlebotomy (bloodletting).
The red and white barber pole may have begun as a pole to hang bandages, or may have symbolized blood, veins, and bandages (red, blue, and white).
The Beginning of Medical Care Regulation
Physicians were licensed after formal training with experienced doctors.
Women were not allowed to practice medicine.
Arabs began requiring physicians to pass exams and obtain licenses
Age of Enlightenment (1700s)
"Rebirth of the science of medicine"
Began acceptance of dissections
Artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci were able to accurately draw the human body
The invention of the printing press allowed discoveries to be published and spread knowledge more rapidly
The scientific method came into use and the microscope was invented.
Average life span: 30-40 years
actual cause of disease still a mystery
Physicians gained increased knowledge of human body
Railroad lines and telegraph enabled communication and easy exchange of information
Factories developed better technologies and mass production
Significant major discoveries:
understanding of blood circulation
pathogen discovery and sterilization process
women in medicine
Major progress in medical science because of ready access to books
Invention of the stethoscope
Identification of blood types
Formal training for nurses
discovery of radium (Marie Curie)
Discovery of insulin
Discovery of DNA molecules
Treating mental illness
psychoanalysis - treating mental and emotional disorders
CAT scans, MRI, and ultrasound are used.
Organ transplants commonplace
AIDS was discovered
1st test tube baby
Gene therapy due to understanding of human DNA
Average life span: 60-70 years
20th -21st Century
When the Roman empire came under the rule of the nomads, progress in science stopped
Catholic church taught that life and death were in the hands of God and no one was interested in learning how the body functioned
Prayer was the preferred method of healing and curing disease
Epidemics killed millions of peope
Egyptians (3000-300 BC)
Lived in what is Iraq today
Earliest to maintain accurate health records and began the practice of examination and determining causes of disease
Developed method of splinting fractures
Believed the body consisted of 4 channels: blood, tears, air, bile, urine & sperm – If channels became blocked, person got sick and leeches or "bloodletting" was used to open them
average age: 20-30 years
Chinese (1700-220 BC)
Religious beliefs prohibited dissection which resulted in inadequate understanding of body structure
Believed in the need to treat the whole body, not just the illness
Began the use of acupunture and pressure points to relieve pain and “congestion”
First to study a "pulse" and believed that the characteristics of a patient's pulse (strength, regularity, rate) could determine severity of illness
Average life span: 20-30 years
Greeks (1200-200 BC)
Began modern science by observing body and the effects of disease
Brought us Hippocrates: Father of Modern Medicine;
recorded s/s of disease
developed organized method to observe body
created high standards of ethics: Hippocratic Oath - still used
Aristotle dissected animals to learn and is considered founder of comparative anatomy
Claudius Galen was one of the first surgeons
Believed illness result of natural disease
Aesculapius – Greek God of healing; people went to his temple to pray for cures - symbol "Staff of Aesculapius" is similar to caduceus
, which is the symbol of the medical profession, symbolized peace and was thought to be carried by Greek God Hermes
Used therapies (message, art, etc) as treatment - still used today
Stressed diet and cleanliness as ways to prevent disease
Average life span: 25-35
Romans (753-410 BC)
First to organize medical care provided for injured soldiers
Early hospitals developed when physicians cared for people in rooms of their own homes
Began first public sanitation system
Built sewers to carry waste away from cities
Used filtering systems in public baths
Used diet and exercise to treat illness and disease
Claudius Galen, physician, established medical beliefs:
4 fluids (humors) blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile
imbalance of humors caused illness
Described symptoms of inflammation and studied infectious diseases
dissected animals and determined function of muscles, kidney and bladder
Average life span: 25-35 years
Over the centuries, medicine has evolved in how we diagnose illnesses (using better technology), how we treat diseases (better medicines) and how we are able to provide life-saving procedures that once were thought impossible (organ transplants, etc.)
The evolvement of healthcare is not just limited to treatments but also our attitudes of what can and should be done within the system.
Traditional "western medicine" usually regjects helathcare treatments that don't focus on of illness; but today, we know there are illnesses and diseases that cfan't be seen (mental disorders) and treatment may be 'alternative' or 'complementary'
Treatment has become more "holistic"; restoring wellness to the body by also treating the mind
Accepting the NEW
Trends of Healthcare
Alternative & Complementary Therapy
National Health Care